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Hirsla is an open access repository, designed as a place to store, index, preserve and redistribute in digital format scholarly work of Landspitali employees. (A/H1N1)
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Distinction between the effects of parental and fetal genomes on fetal growth.Birth weight is a common measure of fetal growth that is associated with a range of health outcomes. It is directly affected by the fetal genome and indirectly by the maternal genome. We performed genome-wide association studies on birth weight in the genomes of the child and parents and further analyzed birth length and ponderal index, yielding a total of 243 fetal growth variants. We clustered those variants based on the effects of transmitted and nontransmitted alleles on birth weight. Out of 141 clustered variants, 22 were consistent with parent-of-origin-specific effects. We further used haplotype-specific polygenic risk scores to directly test the relationship between adult traits and birth weight. Our results indicate that the maternal genome contributes to increased birth weight through blood-glucose-raising alleles while blood-pressure-raising alleles reduce birth weight largely through the fetal genome.
Molecular benchmarks of a SARS-CoV-2 epidemic.A pressing concern in the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic and other viral outbreaks, is the extent to which the containment measures are halting the viral spread. A straightforward way to assess this is to tally the active cases and the recovered ones throughout the epidemic. Here, we show how epidemic control can be assessed with molecular information during a well characterized epidemic in Iceland. We demonstrate how the viral concentration decreased in those newly diagnosed as the epidemic transitioned from exponential growth phase to containment phase. The viral concentration in the cases identified in population screening decreased faster than in those symptomatic and considered at high risk and that were targeted by the healthcare system. The viral concentration persists in recovering individuals as we found that half of the cases are still positive after two weeks. We demonstrate that accumulation of mutations in SARS-CoV-2 genome can be exploited to track the rate of new viral generations throughout the different phases of the epidemic, where the accumulation of mutations decreases as the transmission rate decreases in the containment phase. Overall, the molecular signatures of SARS-CoV-2 infections contain valuable epidemiological information that can be used to assess the effectiveness of containment measures.
Understanding Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Pain Assessment in Dementia: A Literature Review.Background: Pain is underrecognized and undertreated in patients with dementia. It has been suggested that nurses' attitudinal barriers may contribute to the challenges surrounding pain assessment and management in dementia. Aims: This integrative literature review aims to identify and explore nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards pain assessment in older people with dementia and how it may affect pain management in this patient group. Method: Electronic searches were conducted in Web of Science, MEDLINE, Scopus, ProQuest, PubMed, and EBSCOhost from January 2008 to December 2018 for articles specifically focusing on nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards pain assessment in older patients with dementia. Results: Ten studies were included in the review after meeting the inclusion criteria. Data extracted from each study included study design, aims and objectives, setting/sample, findings, and limitations. Patients with dementia are at greater risk of experiencing underassessment, undertreatment, and delayed treatment of pain due to nurses' knowledge deficits and uncertainty in the decision-making process. Nurses see providing comfort and reducing pain as ethical obligation. However, they find pain assessment a challenge due to the complexity of recognizing painful behaviors, and difficulty differentiating between pain and behavioral disturbances in dementia. Poor multidisciplinary communication, time constraints, and workload pressure, as well as uncertainty about opioid use, are important barriers to effective pain assessment and management among patients with dementia. Conclusion: It is essential that nurses gain confidence in distinguishing signs and symptoms of pain from behavioral changes in dementia. It is important to improve interdisciplinary communication and to get physicians to listen and prioritize pain assessment and management.
Effectiveness of a couple-based intervention on sexuality and intimacy among women in active cancer treatment: A quasi-experimental study.Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a strenghts-oriented therapeutic conversation intervention on confidence about how illness beliefs affect sexuality and intimacy and on perceived relationship quality among women in active cancer treatment and their partners. Methods: A quasi-experimental single-group pre-post-follow-up design was used. Women in active cancer treatment and their intimate partners were randomly assigned to a nurse-managed couple-based intervention (experimental group, n = 30 couples) or wait-list (delayed intervention) control group (n = 27 couples) plus 4 additional couples who pilot tested feasibility of the intervention, prior to the RCT. However, baseline differences in demographic and clinical variables prevented comparisons between groups. Therefore, a repeated-one-group pre-post test setup was used, comparing women with cancer and their partners over three time points. The intervention consisted of three Couple-Strengths-Oriented Therapeutic Conversations (CO-SOTC) sessions. The participants also had access to web-based evidence-based educational information. Data were collected before intervention (T1, baseline), one to two weeks post-intervention (T2), and after a follow-up session at three months (T3). Data from 60 couples (N = 120) were analyzed. Results: Significant differences were observed, for both women and intimate partners, over time in more confidence about how illness beliefs affected sexuality and intimacy (T1 versus T2, and T1 versus T3), and increased overall quality of the relationship (T1 versus T2, and T1 versus T3). No differences were found between dyad members' scores on illness beliefs or relationship quality at any time point. Conclusions: The CO-SOTC intervention was effective in supporting sexual adjustment among women in cancer treatment and their intimate partners. Trial registration number: NCT03936400 at clinicaltrials.gov. Keywords: Advanced practice nursing; Couples therapy; Neoplasms; Psychosocial support systems; Sexual health; Sexuality; Spouses; Women.
Cyclodextrin-based formulation of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors for ocular delivery - A review.Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are used as systemic and topical agents for lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with glaucoma. Owing to the wide distribution of CAs and their physiological functions in various tissues, systemic administration of CAIs may lead to unwanted side effects. Thus, exploration of drugs targeting the specific CA isoenzyme in ocular tissues and application of the same as topical eye drops would be desirable. However, the anatomical and physiological barriers of the eyes can limit drug availability at the site. The very low aqueous solubility of CAI agents can further hamper drug bioavailability, consequently resulting in insufficient therapeutic efficacy. Solubilization of drugs using cyclodextrin (CD) complexes can enhance both solubility and permeability of the drugs. The use of CD for such purposes and development and testing of topical CAI eye drops containing CD have been discussed in detail. Further, pharmaceutical nanotechnology platforms were discussed in terms of investigation of their IOP-lowering efficacies. Future prospects in drug discovery and the use of CD nanoparticles and CD-based nanocarriers to develop potential topical CAI formulations have also been described here. Keywords: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor; Cyclodextrin; Glaucoma; Intraocular pressure; Nanocarrier; Solubilization.