Welcome to Hirsla, Landspítali University Hospital research archive

Hirsla is an open access repository, designed as a place to store, index, preserve and redistribute in digital format scholarly work of Landspitali employees. (A/H1N1)

  • Molecular Structure and Interactions of Lipids in the Outer Membrane of Living Cells Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering and Liposome Models.

    Živanović, Vesna; Milewska, Adrianna; Leosson, Kristjan; Kneipp, Janina; 1Department of Chemistry, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Strasse 2, Berlin 12489, Germany. 2Innovation Center Iceland, Árleynir 2-8, Reykjavík 112, Iceland. 3The Blood Bank, Landspitali University Hospital, Snorrabraut 60, Reykjavík 105, Iceland. 4School of Engineering and Natural Sciences, University of Iceland, Sæmundargötu 2, Reykjavík 101, Iceland. 5Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, Reykjavík 107, Iceland. (American Chemical Society, 2021-07-15)
    The distribution and interaction of lipids determine the structure and function of the cellular membrane. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is used for selective molecular probing of the cell membrane of living fibroblast cells grown adherently on gold nanoisland substrates across their whole contact areas with the substrate, enabling mapping of the membrane's composition and interaction. From the SERS data, the localization and distribution of different lipids and their interactions, together with proteins in the outer cell membrane, are inferred. Interpretation of the spectra is mainly supported by comparison with the spectra of model liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol obtained on the same gold substrate. The interaction of the liposomes with the substrate differs from that with gold nanoparticles. The SERS maps indicate colocalization of ordered lipid domains with cholesterol in the living cells. They support the observation of ordered membrane regions of micrometer dimensions in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane that are rich in sphingomyelin. Moreover, the spectra of the living cells contain bands from the groups of the lipid heads, phosphate, choline, and ethanolamine, combined with those from membrane proteins, as indicated by signals assigned to prenyl attachment. Elucidating the composition and structure of lipid membranes in living cells can find application in many fields of research.
  • Clinical practice guideline on spinal stabilisation of adult trauma patients: Endorsement by the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine.

    Yli-Hankala, Arvi; Chew, Michelle S; Olkkola, Klaus T; Rehn, Marius; Sverrisson, Kristinn Ö; Møller, Morten H; 1Department of Anaesthesia, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. 2Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland. 3Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. 4Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. 5Division of Prehospital Services, Air Ambulance Department, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. 6The Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation, Oslo, Norway. 7Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway. 8Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Landspítali University Hospital, Reykjavík, Iceland. 9Department of Intensive Care, University of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. 10Collaboration for Research in Intensive Care (CRIC), Copenhagen, Denmark. (Wiley, 2021-06-24)
    The Clinical Practice Committee of the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine endorses the clinical practice guideline New clinical guidelines on the spinal stabilisation of adult trauma patients-consensus and evidence based. The guideline can serve as a useful decision aid for clinicians caring for patients with traumatic spinal cord injury. However, it is important to acknowledge that the overall certainty of evidence supporting the guideline recommendations was low, implying that further research is likely to have an important impact on the confidence in the estimate of effect. Keywords: SSAI; clinical practice guideline; endorsement; spinal stabilisation; trauma.
  • Cell-phone traces reveal infection-associated behavioral change.

    Vigfusson, Ymir; Karlsson, Thorgeir A; Onken, Derek; Song, Congzheng; Einarsson, Atli F; Kishore, Nishant; Mitchell, Rebecca M; Brooks-Pollock, Ellen; Sigmundsdottir, Gudrun; Danon; et al. (National Academy of Sciences, 2021-11)
    Epidemic preparedness depends on our ability to predict the trajectory of an epidemic and the human behavior that drives spread in the event of an outbreak. Changes to behavior during an outbreak limit the reliability of syndromic surveillance using large-scale data sources, such as online social media or search behavior, which could otherwise supplement healthcare-based outbreak-prediction methods. Here, we measure behavior change reflected in mobile-phone call-detail records (CDRs), a source of passively collected real-time behavioral information, using an anonymously linked dataset of cell-phone users and their date of influenza-like illness diagnosis during the 2009 H1N1v pandemic. We demonstrate that mobile-phone use during illness differs measurably from routine behavior: Diagnosed individuals exhibit less movement than normal (1.1 to 1.4 fewer unique tower locations; [Formula: see text]), on average, in the 2 to 4 d around diagnosis and place fewer calls (2.3 to 3.3 fewer calls; [Formula: see text]) while spending longer on the phone (41- to 66-s average increase; [Formula: see text]) than usual on the day following diagnosis. The results suggest that anonymously linked CDRs and health data may be sufficiently granular to augment epidemic surveillance efforts and that infectious disease-modeling efforts lacking explicit behavior-change mechanisms need to be revisited. Keywords: call detail records; disease; influenza; outbreak; surveillance.
  • Low levels of respiratory syncytial virus activity in Europe during the 2020/21 season: what can we expect in the coming summer and autumn/winter?

    van Summeren, Jojanneke; Meijer, Adam; Aspelund, Guðrún; Casalegno, Jean Sebastien; Erna, Guðrún; Hoang, Uy; Lina, Bruno; de Lusignan, Simon; Teirlinck, Anne C; Thors, Valtýr; et al. (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), 2021-11)
    Since the introduction of non-pharmacological interventions to control COVID-19, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) activity in Europe has been limited. Surveillance data for 17 countries showed delayed RSV epidemics in France (≥ 12 w) and Iceland (≥ 4 w) during the 2020/21 season. RSV cases (predominantly small children) in France and Iceland were older compared with previous seasons. We hypothesise that future RSV epidemic(s) could start outside the usual autumn/winter season and be larger than expected. Year-round surveillance of RSV is of critical importance. Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; RSV; Respiratory syncytial virus; epidemiology; surveillance data.
  • Benchmarking European Home Care Models for Older Persons on Societal Costs: The IBenC Study.

    van Lier, Lisanne I; van der Roest, Henriëtte G; Garms-Homolová, Vjenka; Onder, Graziano; Jónsson, Pálmi V; Declercq, Anja; Hertogh, Cees Mpm; van Hout, Hein Pj; Bosmans, Judith E; 1Departments of General Practice & Medicine of Older Persons, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. 2Department on Aging, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction (Trimbos Institute), Utrecht, the Netherlands. 3Department III, Economy and Law, Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin, University of Applied Sciences, Berlin, Germany. 4Department of Cardiovascular, Endocrine-metabolic Diseases and Aging Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy. 5Department of Geriatrics, Landspitali University Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. 6LUCAS, Centre for Care Research and Consultancy, and CESO, Center for Sociological Research, KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Leuven, Belgium. 7Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. (SAGE Publications, 2021-06-21)
    This study aims to benchmark mean societal costs per client in different home care models and to describe characteristics of home care models with the lowest societal costs. In this prospective longitudinal study in 6 European countries, 6-month societal costs of resource utilization of 2060 older home care clients were estimated. Three care models were identified and compared based on level of patient-centered care (PCC), availability of specialized professionals (ASP) and level of monitoring of care performance (MCP). Differences in costs between care models were analyzed using linear regression while adjusting for case mix differences. Societal costs incurred in care model 2 (low ASP; high PCC & MCP) were significantly higher than in care model 1 (high ASP, PCC & MCP, mean difference €2230 (10%)) and in care model 3 (low ASP & PCC; high MCP, mean difference €2552 (12%)). Organizations within both models with the lowest societal costs, systematically monitor their care performance. However, organizations within one model arranged their care with a low focus on patient-centered care, and employed mainly generalist care professionals, while organizations in the other model arranged their care delivery with a strong focus on patient-centered care combined with a high availability of specialized care professionals. Keywords: Home care models; international benchmarking; older adults; societal costs.

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