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Genome-wide association and Mendelian randomisation analysis provide insights into the pathogenesis of heart failure.Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A small proportion of HF cases are attributable to monogenic cardiomyopathies and existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have yielded only limited insights, leaving the observed heritability of HF largely unexplained. We report results from a GWAS meta-analysis of HF comprising 47,309 cases and 930,014 controls. Twelve independent variants at 11 genomic loci are associated with HF, all of which demonstrate one or more associations with coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation, or reduced left ventricular function, suggesting shared genetic aetiology. Functional analysis of non-CAD-associated loci implicate genes involved in cardiac development (MYOZ1, SYNPO2L), protein homoeostasis (BAG3), and cellular senescence (CDKN1A). Mendelian randomisation analysis supports causal roles for several HF risk factors, and demonstrates CAD-independent effects for atrial fibrillation, body mass index, and hypertension. These findings extend our knowledge of the pathways underlying HF and may inform new therapeutic strategies.
Awareness of polycystic ovary syndrome among obstetrician-gynecologists and endocrinologists in Northern Europe.Objective: To date, little is known about differences in the knowledge, diagnosis making and treatment strategies of health care providers regarding polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) across different disciplines in countries with similar health care systems. To inform guideline translation, we aimed to study physician reported awareness, diagnosis and management of PCOS and to explore differences between medical disciplines in the Nordic countries and Estonia. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 382 endocrinologists and obstetrician-gynaecologists in the Nordic countries and Estonia in 2015-2016. Of the participating physicians, 43% resided in Finland, 18% in Denmark, 16% in Norway, 13% in Estonia, and 10% in Sweden or Iceland, and 75% were obstetrician-gynaecologists. Multivariable logistic regression models were run to identify health care provider characteristics for awareness, diagnosis and treatment of PCOS. Results: Clinical features, lifestyle management and comorbidity were commonly recognized in women with PCOS, while impairment in psychosocial wellbeing was not well acknowledged. Over two-thirds of the physicians used the Rotterdam diagnostic criteria for PCOS. Medical endocrinologists more often recommended lifestyle management (OR = 3.6, CI 1.6-8.1) or metformin (OR = 5.0, CI 2.5-10.2), but less frequently OCP (OR = 0.5, CI 0.2-0.9) for non-fertility concerns than general obstetrician-gynaecologists. The physicians aged <35 years were 2.2 times (95% CI 1.1-4.3) more likely than older physicians to recommend lifestyle management for patients with PCOS for fertility concerns. Physicians aged 46-55 years were less likely to recommend oral contraceptive pills (OCP) for patients with PCOS than physicians aged >56 (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8). Conclusion: Despite well-organized healthcare, awareness, diagnosis and management of PCOS is suboptimal, especially in relation to psychosocial comorbidities, among physicians in the Nordic countries and Estonia. Physicians need more education on PCOS and evidence-based information on Rotterdam diagnostic criteria, psychosocial features and treatment of PCOS, with the recently published international PCOS guideline well needed and welcomed.
The significance of bicuspid aortic valve after surgery for acute type A aortic dissection.Objective: Decision-making concerning the extent of the repair of acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) includes functional and anatomical assessment of the aortic valve. We hypothesized that bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) does not impact outcome after surgery for ATAAD. We therefore evaluated the outcome after ATAAD surgery in relation to the presence of BAV, acute aortic regurgitation (AR), and surgical approach, using the Nordic Consortium for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection database. Methods: Eight participating Nordic centers collected data from 1122 patients undergoing ATAAD surgery during the years 2005 to 2014. Early complications, reoperations and survival were compared between patients with BAV and tricuspid aortic valves (TAV) before and after propensity score matching for sex, age, AR, organ malperfusion, hemodynamic instability, and site of the tear. Mean follow-up (range) for patients with TAV and BAV was 3.1 years (0-10.4 years) and 3.2 years (0-9.0 years), respectively. Results: Altogether, 65 (5.8%) of the patients had BAV. Root replacement was more frequently performed in the BAV as compared with the TAV group (60% vs 23%, P < .001). Survival, however, did not differ significantly between patients with BAV or TAV, either before (P = .230) or after propensity score-matching (P = .812). Even so, in cohort as a whole, patients presenting with AR had less favorable survival. Conclusions: Early and mid-term survival did not differ significantly between patients with BAV and TAV.
Predictors of Gastrin Elevation Following Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy.Goals: The goal of this study was to elucidate the most important predictors for elevation of gastrin in patients on long-term PPI therapy through analysis of data from 2 published studies in Icelandic patients with erosive GERD. Background: Gastrin elevation is a known but variable consequence of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. Concerns have been raised about the clinical importance of chronic PPI induced gastrin elevation. Study: This cross-sectional analysis included patients with endoscopically verified erosive esophagitis receiving long-term PPI therapy. PPI exposure in dosage over weight (mg/kg) and dosage over body surface area (mg/m) was compared with fasting gastrin levels in two separate multiple linear regression models. Data was collected on age, gender, weight, H. pylori infection, smoking, PPI duration and type. Results: Overall data from 157 patients (78 females) were analyzed. Median serum gastrin levels were higher in females than males (92 vs. 60 pg/mL; P=0.001). Simple linear regression showed a correlation between serum gastrin levels and gender (P=0.0008) as well as PPI exposure in mg/kg (P=0.0001) and mg/m (P=0.0001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that PPI exposure, both in mg/kg (β=0.95 [CI=0.4-1.5]; P=0.001) and mg/m (β=0.02 [CI=0.0-0.0]; P=0.0015) along with female gender (β=0.2 [CI=0.0-0.4]; P=0.02) predicted higher gastrin values. Conclusions: Dosage and female gender seem to play an important role in the development of gastrin elevation on PPI therapy. A significant correlation was found between fasting serum gastrin and dosage of PPIs over weight and body surface area.
Six commonly used empirical body surface area formulas disagreed in young children undergoing corrective heart surgery.Aim: Formulas for empirical body surface area (BSA), which is used to estimate body size and standardise physiological parameters, may disagree in children. We compared six commonly used BSA formulas-Du Bois, Boyd, Costeff, Haycock, Meban and Mosteller-in a surgical cohort. Methods: This retrospective single-centre cohort study comprised 68 children who had corrective heart surgery at Skåne University Children's Hospital, Lund, Sweden, from February 2010 to March 2017. Results: The children (51% female) underwent surgery at a mean weight of 7.0 kilograms (range 2.7-14.1 kg) and a mean age 11 months (range 0-43 months). All the BSA formulas showed good correlation with mean BSA, but there were considerable variations between them. Mosteller's formula was exactly the same as the mean BSA (bias 0.000). The Du Bois and Boyd formulas had the largest mean BSA deviations (bias -0.012 and 0.015). Costeff's formula showed good agreement with mean BSA, Haycock's formula showed minimal overestimation and Meban's formula demonstrated a systemic error in older children. Conclusion: Commonly used BSA formulas did not agree in young children undergoing heart surgery, but they were all close to the overall mean of the six formulas, with the Mosteller formula producing the same value.