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Hirsla is an open access repository, designed as a place to store, index, preserve and redistribute in digital format scholarly work of Landspitali employees. (A/H1N1)
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Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment in a low-volume and geographically isolated cardiothoracic centre.BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) treatment is generally offered in large tertiary cardiothoracic referral centres. Here we present the indications and outcome of venovenous-ECMO (VV-ECMO) treatment in a low-volume, geographically isolated single-centre in Iceland, a country of 350 000 inhabitants. Our hypothesis was that patient survival in such a centre can be similar to that at high-volume centres. METHODS: A retrospective study that included all patients treated with VV-ECMO in Iceland from 1991-2016 (n = 17). Information on demographics, indications and in-hospital survival was collected from patient charts and APACHE II and Murray scores were calculated. Information on long-term survival was collected from a centralized registry. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were treated with VV-ECMO (nine males, median age 33 years, range 14-74), the indication for 16 patients was severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, most often following pneumonia (n = 6), H1N1-infection (n = 3) or drowning (n = 2). Median APACHE-II and Murray-scores were 20 and 3.5, respectively, and median duration of VV-ECMO treatment was 9 days (range 2-40 days). In total 11 patients (64,7%) survived the treatment, with 10 patients (58,8%) surviving hospital discharge, all of who were still alive at long-term follow-up, with a median follow-up time of 9 years (August 15th, 2017). CONCLUSION: Venovenous-ECMO service can be provided in a low-volume and geographically isolated centre, like Iceland, with short- and long-term outcomes comparable to larger centres.
Infections and outcomes after cardiac surgery-The impact of outbreaks traced to transesophageal echocardiography probes.BACKGROUND: Infections are a frequent complication of cardiac surgery. The intraoperative use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) may be an underrecognized risk factor for post-operative infections. The aim of this study was to investigate infection rates and outcomes after cardiac surgery in a nationwide cohort, especially in relation to periods where surface damaged TEE probes were used. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study at Landspitali University Hospital. All consecutive cardiac surgery patients from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2017 were included. Patients' charts were reviewed for evidence of infection, post-operative complications or death. RESULTS: During the study period, 973 patients underwent cardiac surgery at Landspitali and 198 (20.3%) developed a post-operative infection. The most common infections were: Pneumonia (9.1%), superficial surgical site (5.7%), bloodstream (2.8%) and deep sternal wound (1.7%). Risk factors for developing an infection included: The duration of procedure, age, insulin-dependent diabetes, EuroScore II, reoperation for bleeding and an operation in a period with a surface damaged TEE probe in use. Twenty-two patients were infected with a multidrug resistant strain of Klebsiella oxytoca, 10 patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and two patients developed endocarditis with Enterococcus faecalis. All three pathogens were cultured from the TEE probe in use at respective time, after decontamination. The 30-day mortality rate in the patient cohort was 3.2%. CONCLUSIONS: The intraoperative use of surface damaged TEE probes caused two serious infection outbreaks in patients after cardiac surgery. TEE probes need careful visual inspection during decontamination and probe sheaths are recommended.
Drug-Induced Liver Injury - Types and Phenotypes.The liver has a range of responses to drug-induced injury, with a number of phenotypes. In addition, idiosyncratic reactions may occur as a consequence of both direct drug action and indirect drug effects. Antibiotics are the most common cause of drug-induced liver injury.
Mendelian randomisation study of height and body mass index as modifiers of ovarian cancer risk in 22,588 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.
Resequencing Study Confirms That Host Defense and Cell Senescence Gene Variants Contribute to the Risk of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.Rationale: Several common and rare genetic variants have been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a progressive fibrotic condition that is localized to the lung. Objectives: To develop an integrated understanding of the rare and common variants located in multiple loci that have been reported to contribute to the risk of disease. Methods: We performed deep targeted resequencing (3.69 Mb of DNA) in cases (n = 3,624) and control subjects (n = 4,442) across genes and regions previously associated with disease. We tested for associations between disease and 1) individual common variants via logistic regression and 2) groups of rare variants via sequence kernel association tests. Measurements and Main Results: Statistically significant common variant association signals occurred in all 10 of the regions chosen based on genome-wide association studies. The strongest risk variant is the MUC5B promoter variant rs35705950, with an odds ratio of 5.45 (95% confidence interval, 4.91-6.06) for one copy of the risk allele and 18.68 (95% confidence interval, 13.34-26.17) for two copies of the risk allele (P = 9.60 × 10-295). In addition to identifying for the first time that rare variation in FAM13A is associated with disease, we confirmed the role of rare variation in the TERT and RTEL1 gene regions in the risk of IPF, and found that the FAM13A and TERT regions have independent common and rare variant signals. Conclusions: A limited number of common and rare variants contribute to the risk of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in each of the resequencing regions, and these genetic variants focus on biological mechanisms of host defense and cell senescence.