• Survival for oesophageal, stomach and small intestine cancers in Europe 1999–2007: Results from EUROCARE-5

      Anderson, L.A.; Tavilla, A.; Brenner, H.; Luttmann, S.; Navarro, C.; Gavin, A.T.; Holleczek, B.; Johnston, B.T.; Cook, M.B.; Bannon, F.; et al. (Elsevier SCI, 2015-10)
      Background: European regional variation in cancer survival was reported in the EUROCARE-4 study for patients diagnosed in 1995-1999. Relative survival (RS) estimates are here updated for patients diagnosed with cancer of the oesophagus, stomach and small intestine from 2000 to 2007. Trends in RS from 1999-2001 to 2005-2007 are presented to monitor and discuss improvements in patient survival in Europe. Materials and methods: EUROCARE-5 data from 29 countries (87 cancer registries) were used to investigate 1- and 5-year RS. Using registry-specific life-tables stratified by age, gender and calendar year, age-standardised 'complete analysis' RS estimates by country and region were calculated for Northern, Southern, Eastern and Central Europe, and for Ireland and United Kingdom (UK). Survival trends of patients in periods 1999-2001, 2002-2004 and 2005-2007 were investigated using the 'period' RS approach. We computed the 5-year RS conditional on surviving the first year (5-year conditional survival), as the ratio of age-standardised 5-year RS to 1-year RS. Results: Oesophageal cancer 1- and 5-year RS (40% and 12%, respectively) remained poor in Europe. Patient survival was worst in Eastern (8%), Northern (11%) and Southern Europe (10%). Europe-wide, there was a 3% improvement in oesophageal cancer 5-year survival by 2005-2007, with Ireland and the UK (3%), and Central Europe (4%) showing large improvements. Europe-wide, stomach cancer 5-year RS was 25%. Ireland and UK (17%) and Eastern Europe (19%) had the poorest 5-year patient survival. Southern Europe had the best 5-year survival (30%), though only showing an improvement of 2% by 2005-2007. Small intestine cancer 5-year RS for Europe was 48%, with Central Europe having the best (54%), and Ireland and UK the poorest (37%). Five-year patient survival improvement for Europe was 8% by 2005-2007, with Central, Southern and Eastern Europe showing the greatest increases (P9%). Conclusions: Survival for these cancer sites, particularly oesophageal cancer, remains poor in Europe with wide variation. Further investigation into the wide variation, including analysis by histology and anatomical sub-site, will yield insights to better monitor and explain the improvements in survival observed over time.
    • Survival of patients with skin melanoma in Europe increases further: Results of the EUROCARE-5 study

      Crocetti, Emanuele; Mallone, Sandra; Robsahm, Trude Eid; Gavin, Anna; Agius, Domenic; Ardanaz, Eva; Lopez, Maria-Dolores Chirlaque; Innos, Kaire; Minicozzi, Pamela; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; et al. (Elsevier SCI, 2015-10)
      Background: In Europe skin melanoma (SM) survival has increased over time. The aims were to evaluate recent trends and differences between countries and regions of Europe. Methods: Relative survival (RS) estimates and geographical comparisons were based on 241,485 patients aged 15 years and over with a diagnosis of invasive SM in Europe (2000-2007). Survival time trends during 1999-2007 were estimated using the period approach, for 213,101 patients. Age, gender, sub-sites and morphology subgroups were considered. Results: In European patients, estimated 5-year RS was 83% (95% confidence interval, CI 83-84%). The highest values were found for patients resident in Northern (88%; 87-88%) and Central (88%; 87-88%) Europe, followed by Ireland and United Kingdom (UK) (86%; 85-86%) and Southern Europe (83%; 82-83%). The lowest survival was in Eastern Europe (74%; 74-75%). Within regions the intercountry absolute difference in percentage points of RS varied from 4% (North) to 34% (East). RS decreased markedly with patients' age and was higher in women than men. Differences according to SM morphology and skin sub-sites also emerged. Survival has slightly increased from 1999 to 2007, with a small improvement in Northern and the most pronounced improvement in Eastern Europe. Discussion: SM survival is high and still increasing in European patients. The gap between Northern and Southern and especially Eastern European countries, although still present, diminished over time. Differences in stage distribution at diagnosis may explain most of the geographical differences. However, part of the improvement in survival may be attributed to overdiagnosis from early diagnosis practices
    • Survival patterns in lung and pleural cancer in Europe 1999–2007: Results from the EUROCARE-5 study

      Francisci, Silvia; Minicozzi, Pamela; Pierannunzio, Daniela; Ardanaz, Eva; Eberle, Andrea; Grimsrud, Tom K.; Knijn, Arnold; Pastorino, Ugo; Salmerón, Diego; Trama, Annalisa; et al. (Elsevier SCI, 2015-10)
      Background: Survival of patients diagnosed with lung and pleura cancer is a relevant health care indicator which is related to the availability and access to early diagnosis and treatment facilities. Aim of this paper is to update lung and pleural cancer survival patterns and time trends in Europe using the EUROCARE-5 database. Methods: Data on adults diagnosed with lung and pleural cancer from 87 European cancer registries in 28 countries were analysed. Relative survival (RS) in 2000-2007 by country/region, age and gender, and over time trends in 1999-2007 were estimated. Results: Lung cancer survival is poor everywhere in Europe, with a RS of 39% and 13% at 1 and 5 years since diagnosis, respectively. A geographical variability is present across European areas with a maximum regional difference of 12 and 5 percentage points in 1-year and 5-year RS respectively. Pleural cancer represents 4% of cases included in the present study with 7% 5-year RS overall in Europe. Most pleural cancers (83%) are microscopically verified mesotheliomas. Survival for both cancers decreases with advancing age at diagnosis for both cancers. Slight increasing trends are described for lung cancer. Survival over time is higher for squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinomas than for small and large cell carcinoma; and better among women than men. Conclusions: Despite the generalised although slight increase, survival of lung and pleural cancer patients still remains poor in European countries. Priority should be given to prevention, with tobacco control policies across Europe for lung cancer and banning asbestos exposure for pleural cancer, and in early diagnosis and better treatment. The management of mesothelioma needs a multidisciplinary team and standardised health care strategies
    • Survival variations by country and age for lymphoid and myeloid malignancies in Europe 2000-2007: Results of EUROCARE-5 population-based study

      De Angelis; Minicozzi, P; Sant, M; Dal Maso, L; Brewster, DH; Osca-Gelis, G; Visser, O; Maynadie, M; Marcos-Gragera, R; Troussard, X; et al. (Elsevier SCI, 2016)
      Background: Significant advances in the management of patients with lymphoid and myeloid malignancies entered clinical practice in the early 2000's. The EUROCARE-5 study database provides an opportunity to assess the impact of these changes at the population level by country in Europe. We provide survival estimates for clinically relevant haematological malignancies (HM), using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology 3, by country, gender and age in Europe. Methods: We estimated age-standardised relative survival using the complete cohort approach for 625,000 adult patients diagnosed in 2000-2007 and followed up to 2008. Survival information was provided by 89 participating cancer registries from 29 European countries. Mean survival in Europe was calculated as the population weighted average of country-specific estimates. Results: On average in Europe, 5-year relative survival was highest for Hodgkin lymphoma (81%; 40,625 cases), poorest for acute myeloid leukaemia (17%; 57,026 cases), and intermediate for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (59%; 329,204 cases), chronic myeloid leukaemia (53%; 17,713 cases) and plasma cell neoplasms (39%; 94,024 cases). Survival was generally lower in Eastern Europe and highest in Central and Northern Europe. Wider between country differences (>10%) were observed for malignancies that benefited from therapeutic advances, such as chronic myeloid leukaemia, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Lower differences (<10%) were observed for Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusions: Delayed or reduced access to innovative and appropriate therapies could plausibly have contributed to the observed geographical disparities between European regions and countries. Population based survival by morphological sub-type is important for measuring outcomes of HM management. To better inform quality of care research, the collection of detailed clinical information at the population level should be prioritised.