• Genetic basis of tobacco smoking: strong association of a specific major histocompatibility complex haplotype on chromosome 6 with smoking behavior.

      Füst, George; Arason, Gudmundur J; Kramer, Judith; Szalai, Csaba; Duba, Jeno; Yang, Yan; Chung, Erwin K; Zhou, Bi; Blanchong, Carol A; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2004-10-01)
      The genetic basis for addiction to tobacco smoking--particularly that of the perception of olfactory stimuli that may be important in reinforcing smoking addiction--is largely unknown. A cluster of genes for olfactory receptors is in close proximity to the MHC region on chromosome 6. Polymorphisms of MHC class III genes (RCCX modules, TNFA promoter polymorphisms) were determined in 101 healthy subjects and 232 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients from Hungary with defined tobacco smoking habits. A highly significant association between ever smoking (past + current smokers) and a specific MHC haplotype was observed (odds ratios = 2.14-4.13; P-values = 0.012 to <0.001). This haplotype is characterized by the presence of C4A null alleles and a solitary short C4B gene linked to the TNF2 allele of the promoter for TNFA gene. This haplotype occurred more frequently in the ever smokers than in the never smokers [odds ratio: 4.97 (1.96-12.62); P = 0.001], and such associations were stronger in women (odds ratio = 13.6) than in men (odds ratio = 2.79). An independent study of complement C4 protein polymorphism and smoking habits in Icelandic subjects (n = 351) yielded similar and confirmative results. Considering the documented link between olfactory stimuli and smoking in females, and the presence of a cluster of odorant receptor genes close to the MHC class I region, our findings implicate a potential role of the MHC-linked olfactory receptor genes in the initiation of smoking.
    • The HLA 8.1 ancestral haplotype is strongly linked to the C allele of -429T>C promoter polymorphism of receptor of the advanced glycation endproduct (RAGE) gene. Haplotype-independent association of the -429C allele with high hemoglobinA1C levels in diabetic patients

      Laki, Judit; Kiszel, Petra; Vatay, Agnes; Blaskó, Bernadett; Kovács, Margit; Körner, Anna; Madácsy, László; Blatniczky, László; Almássy, Zsuzsa; Szalai, Csaba; et al. (Pergamon Press, 2007-01-01)
      Previously we reported on strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the mono-S-C4B-RCCX module (mono-S) and the TNF2 allele (both known constituents of the 8.1 ancestral haplotype (8.1 AH)) in two Caucasian populations. The gene for the receptor of advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is encoded between the RCCX module and the HLA class II genes in the central MHC region. In order to assess the relationship between the promoter polymorphisms of the RAGE gene and the 8.1 AH, we performed a family study in eight informative families affected with type 1 diabetes mellitus; haplotypes of a RAGE promoter SNP (-429T>C) with the HLA-DQ2, -DR-3(17) and TNF2 alleles, as well as the mono-S genotype were determined. A similar analysis was performed in 82 unrelated patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and in unrelated healthy individuals of three different Caucasian populations (Hungarians, Ohioian females, Icelandics). In the diabetic patients clinical correlations were also investigated. Out of the 32 paternal and maternal chromosome 6 from the eight families, 15 different MHC haplotypes were found. Haplotypes containing at least three of the known constituents of the 8.1 AH (HLA-DQ2, -DR17, mono-S, TNF2) were always linked to the RAGE -429C allele. The RAGE -429C allele exhibited highly significant (p<0.0001) LD coefficients to known constituents of the 8.1 AH both in healthy persons and patients with type 1 diabetes. In the group of patients with diabetes we found significantly (p=0.013) higher maximal hemoglobinA1C concentration in the carriers of the RAGE -429C allele, this trait, however was not linked to the 8.1 AH. Our present findings indicate that the RAGE -429C allele can be considered as a candidate member of the 8.1 AH. The results also reveal a spectrum of recombinant MHC haplotypes in addition to the conserved ancestral haplotypes.
    • Low complement C4B gene copy number predicts short-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction.

      Blasko, Bernadett; Kolka, Ragnhildur; Thorbjornsdottir, Perla; Sigurdarson, Sigurdur Thor; Sigurdsson, Gardar; Rónai, Zsolt; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Bödvarsson, Sigurdur; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Prohászka, Zoltán; et al. (Oxford University Press,, 2008-01-01)
      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Some recent data indicate that risk of death after acute coronary syndrome is under genetic control. Previously, we found that the C4B*Q0 genotype (low copy number of the C4B gene that encodes the fourth component of complement) is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The +252 G allele of the lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) gene encoded close to the C4B gene was also reported to be related to CVD-related mortality in an Oriental population. METHODS: The relationship between the copy number of the genes encoding the fourth component of complement (C4A and C4B) and LTA 252 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the one hand and mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was studied in 142 Icelandic patients. The number of the C4A and C4B genes was determined in genomic DNA samples by a newly developed real-time PCR-based method; lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) +252 A>G polymorphism was determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. RESULTS: The C4B*Q0 genotype was found to be strongly associated with 1-year mortality, with a hazard ratio of 3.50 (1.38-8.87) (P = 0.008) (adjusted Cox regression analysis). This association was, however, restricted to ever-smoking patients. By contrast, neither C4A gene copy numbers nor LTA 252 SNP did confer increased risk of mortality after AMI. CONCLUSIONS: This observation indicates that low C4B copy number is a strong risk factor for short-term mortality after AMI in smoking Icelandic patients, whereas LTA 252 G allele is not a risk factor in Caucasian population.