• Quantifying cancer absolute risk and cancer mortality in the presence of competing events after a myotonic dystrophy diagnosis.

      Gadalla, Shahinaz M; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Björkholm, Magnus; Hilbert, James E; Moxley, Richard T; Landgren, Ola; Greene, Mark H; NCI, Clin Genet Branch, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA, NCI, Biostat Branch, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA, Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, Div Hematol, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden, Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland, Landspitali Natl Univ Hosp, Dept Hematol, Reykjavik, Iceland, Univ Rochester, Med Ctr, Dept Neurol, Neuromuscular Dis Ctr, Rochester, NY 14642 USA, NCI, Metab Branch, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA (Public Library Science, 2013)
      Recent studies show that patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM) have an increased risk of specific malignancies, but estimates of absolute cancer risk accounting for competing events are lacking. Using the Swedish Patient Registry, we identified 1,081 patients with an inpatient and/or outpatient diagnosis of DM between 1987 and 2007. Date and cause of death and date of cancer diagnosis were extracted from the Swedish Cause of Death and Cancer Registries. We calculated non-parametric estimates of absolute cancer risk and cancer mortality accounting for the high non-cancer competing mortality associated with DM. Absolute cancer risk after DM diagnosis was 1.6% (95% CI=0.4-4%), 5% (95% CI=3-9%) and 9% (95% CI=6-13%) at ages 40, 50 and 60 years, respectively. Females had a higher absolute risk of all cancers combined than males: 9% (95% CI=4-14), and 13% (95% CI=9-20) vs. 2% (95%CI= 0.7-6) and 4% (95%CI=2-8) by ages 50 and 60 years, respectively) and developed cancer at younger ages (median age =51 years, range=22-74 vs. 57, range=43-84, respectively, p=0.02). Cancer deaths accounted for 10% of all deaths, with an absolute cancer mortality risk of 2% (95%CI=1-4.5%), 4% (95%CI=2-6%), and 6% (95%CI=4-9%) by ages 50, 60, and 70 years, respectively. No gender difference in cancer-specific mortality was observed (p=0.6). In conclusion, cancer significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in DM patients, even after accounting for high competing DM mortality from non-neoplastic causes. It is important to apply population-appropriate, validated cancer screening strategies in DM patients.