• Peridural scar and its relation to clinical outcome: a randomised study on surgically treated lumbar disc herniation patients.

      Rönnberg, K; Lind, B; Zoega, B; Gadeholt-Göthlin, G; Halldin, K; Gellerstedt, M; Brisby, H; Department of Orthopaedics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg University, 413 45, Göteborg, Sweden. katarina.ronnberg@vgregion.se (Springer-Verlag, 2008-12-01)
      A prospective randomised 2-year follow-up study on patients undergoing lumbar disc herniation surgery. The objective was to investigate the relationship between peridural scarring and clinical outcome, the scar development 6 and 24 months postoperatively by using MRI, and if ADCON-L (a bioresorbable carbohydrate polymer gel) has an effect on scar size and/or improve patients' outcome after lumbar disc herniation surgery. The association between peridural scarring and recurrent pain after lumbar disc herniation surgery is debated. Numerous materials have been used in attempts to prevent or reduce postoperative peridural scarring; however, there are conflicting data regarding the clinical effects. The study included 119 patients whose mean age was 39 years (18-66); 51 (47%) were women. Sixty patients (56%) were perioperatively randomised to receive ADCON-L, and 48 (44%) served as controls. All patients underwent MRI at 6 and 24 months postoperatively, and an independent radiologist graded the size, location and development of the scar, by using a previously described scoring system. Pre- and 2-year postoperatively patients graded their leg pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS). At the 2-year follow-up patients rated their satisfaction with treatment (subjective outcome) and were evaluated by an independent neurologist (objective outcome), using MacNab score. There was no relationship between size or localisation of the scar and any of the clinical outcomes (VAS, subjective and objective outcome). The scar size decreased between 6 and 24 months in 49%, was unchanged in 42% and increased in 9% of the patients. Patients treated with ADCON-L did not demonstrate any adverse effects, nor did they demonstrate less scarring or better clinical outcome than control patients. No significant association between the presence of extensive peridural scar or localisation of scar formation and clinical outcome could be detected in the present study. Further, no positive or negative effects of ADCON-L used in disc herniation surgery could be seen.
    • Three-dimensional radiological classification of lumbar disc herniation in relation to surgical outcome

      Halldin, K; Lind, B; Rönnberg, K; Göthlin, J; Gadeholt-Göthlin, G; Zoëga, B; Brisby, H; Department of Orthopaedics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden. klas.halldin@vgregion.se (Springer Verlag, 2009-06-01)
      Centrally located lumbar disc herniations have been reported to be of predictive value for poor post-operative clinical outcome. One hundred and fifty patients undergoing lumbar disc herniation surgery were prospectively included. Herniation-related parameters, including the grading of contours, were assessed from pre-operative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images using a new three-dimensional grading system. The radiological findings were compared with outcome parameters two years post-operatively (patient-assessed pain, function/health scores and evaluation by an independent observer). An intra- and inter-observer validation of the classification was performed in a subgroup of patients. High intra-observer and good inter-observer reliability for both CT and MRI was seen. In the study population, no relation between the distribution or size of the herniations and outcome at 2-year follow-up were found. The distribution and size of the lumbar disc herniations with the three-dimensional classification were not found to be of importance for the clinical outcome.