• Indomethacin decreases optic nerve oxygen tension by a mechanism other than cyclo-oxygenase inhibition.

      Noergaard, M Hove; Pedersen, D Bach; Bang, K; Jensen, P Koch; Kiilgaard, J Folke; Stefansson, E; la Cour, M; Department of Ophthalmology, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. hovemichael@yahoo.com (British Medical Association, 2008-01-01)
      AIMS: We investigated the effect of several Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), on the preoptic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO2), as indomethacin previously has demonstrated a strong decreasing effect on ONPO2. We tested whether these NSAIDs, like indomethacin, also reduce the increasing effect of dorzolamide on ONPO2. METHODS: ONPO2 was measured 0.5 mm above the optic disc in 23 domestic pigs (26-36 kg) with a polarographic oxygen-sensitive electrode. One of the following NSAIDs was administered intravenously as increasing doses or as one large dose: indomethacin, ibuprofen, diclofenac, ketoprofen, parecyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor and lornoxicam. Indomethacin was both tested alone and after preceding administration of the other NSAIDs. Dorzolamide was also tested after preceding administration of NSAIDs different from indomethacin. RESULTS: Indomethacin decreased ONPO2 significantly in a dose-dependent manner. None of the other NSAIDs produced any effect on the ONPO2 (p>>0.05; n = 17). No difference was found between the effect of indomethacin injected alone, and after preceding administration of the other NSAIDs. Intravenous dorzolamide (500 mg) increased ONPO2 by 32 (7)% (n = 7; p<0.001) after preceding administration of several NSAIDs different from indomethacin. CONCLUSIONS: Indomethacin decreased ONPO2, while the other NSAIDs showed no effect on ONPO2, and they did not affect the effect of indomethacin. The hypoxic effect of indomethacin must be due to another mechanism than cyclo-oxygenase inhibition. The effect of dorzolamide on ONPO2 is not related to prostaglandin production.
    • Optic nerve oxygen tension in pigs and the effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

      Stefansson, E; Jensen, P K; Eysteinsson, T; Bang, K; Kiilgaard, J F; Dollerup, J; Scherfig, E; la Cour, M; Department of Ophthalmology, University of Iceland, Reykjavik. einarste@rsp.is (Association For Research In Vision And Ophthalmology (Arvo), 1999-10-01)
      PURPOSE: To evaluate how the oxygen tension of the optic nerve (ONP(O)2) is affected by the administration of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors dorzolamide and acetazolamide and by alterations in oxygen and carbon dioxide in the breathing mixture. METHODS: Polarographic oxygen electrodes were placed in the vitreous humor immediately over the optic disc in 20 anesthetized pigs. Blood gasses and cardiovascular physiology were monitored. ONP(O)2 was recorded continuously with breathing gasses of 21% O2-79% N2, 100% O2, 20% O2-80% N2, and 5.19% CO2-19.9%, O2-74.9% N2. Acetazolamide (15-1000 mg) and dorzolamide (6-1000 mg) were administered intravenously. RESULTS: The mean (+/- SD) ONP(O)2 was found to be 24.1+/-11.6 mm Hg when the pigs were breathing room air and 50.7+/-29.3 mm Hg when they were breathing 100% O2 (n = 15; P < 0.001). In response to breathing 5.19% CO2, ONP(O)2 changed from 20.8+/-5.6 mm Hg (with 20.0% O2) to 28.9+/-3.6 mm Hg (n = 4; P < 0.001). Intravenous injections of 500 mg dorzolamide increased ONP(O)2 from 16.4+/-6.1 mm Hg to 26.9+/-12.2 mm Hg, or 52.5%+/-21.2% (n = 5; P = 0.017). A dose-dependent effect on ONP(O)2 was seen with intravenous dorzolamide doses of 1000, 500, 250, 125, 63, 27, 15, and 6 mg. Intravenous injections of 500 mg acetazolamide increased ONP(O)2 from 23.6+/-9.5 mm Hg to 30.9+/-10.0 mm Hg (n = 6; P < 0.001), and a dose-dependent effect was seen with doses of 1000, 500, 250, 125, 31, and 15 mg. CONCLUSIONS: ONP(O)2 is significantly increased by the carbonic anhydrase inhibition of dorzolamide and acetazolamide, and the effect is dose dependent. These data demonstrate for the first time a direct effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors on ONP(O)2.
    • Optic nerve oxygen tension: the effects of timolol and dorzolamide.

      Kiilgaard, J F; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T; la Cour, M; Bang, K; Jensen, P K; Stefansson, E; Department of Ophthalmology, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. jfk@dadlnet.dk (British Medical Association, 2004-02-01)
      BACKGROUND/AIMS: The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta blockers, has a similar effect. In addition, the effect of dorzolamide and timolol in combination was studied. METHODS: Polarographic oxygen electrodes were placed transvitreally over the optic disc in anaesthetised pigs and ONPO(2) was recorded continually. Drugs were administered intravenously either as 100 mg timolol followed by 500 mg dorzolamide (n = 5), 500 mg dorzolamide followed by 100 mg timolol (n = 5), or 100 mg timolol and 500 mg dorzolamide given simultaneously (n = 5). Arterial blood pressure, blood gasses, and heart rate were recorded. RESULTS: ONPO(2) was unaffected by administration of 100 mg timolol as an intravenous injection (n = 5). Administration of 500 mg dorzolamide by itself significantly increased ONPO(2) from 2.96 (SD 0.62) kPa to 3.69 (SD 0.88) kPa (n = 4, p = 0.035). The dorzolamide induced ONPO(2) increase was not significantly different from the ONPO(2) increases were seen when dorzolamide was administered simultaneous with (n = 5) or 35 minutes (n = 5) after 100 mg timolol. CONCLUSION: Systemic administration of timolol does not affect the optic nerve oxygen tension despite its lowering effect on the intraocular pressure. Additionally, timolol does not affect the ONPO(2) increasing effect of dorzolamide.