• Chlamydia trachomatis in Iceland: Prevalence, Clinico-epidemiological Features and Comparison of Cobas 480 CT/NG and Aptima Combo 2 (CT/NG) for Diagnosis.

      Hilmarsdóttir, Ingibjorg; Arnardóttir, Eva Mjöll; Jóhannesdóttir, Elísabet Reykdal; Golparian, Daniel; Unemo, Magnus; 1 ]‎ Univ Hosp Iceland, Landspitali, Dept Microbiol, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland Show more [ 2 ]‎ Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland Show more [ 3 ]‎ Univ Hosp Iceland, Landspltali, Dept Sexually Transmitted Dis, Reykjavik, Iceland Show more [ 4 ]‎ Orebro Univ, Fac Med & Hlth, Dept Lab Med, World Hlth Org Collaborating Ctr Gonorrhoea & Oth, Orebro, Sweden (Acta dermato-venereologica, 2021-02-11)
      The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of, and risk factors for, Chlamydia trachomatis in attendees recruited prospectively from October 2018 to January 2019 at the only sexually transmitted infections clinic in Iceland (in Reykjavík), and to evaluate the cobas 4800 CT/NG Test and Aptima Combo 2 Assay for C. trachomatis detection in male urine and female vaginal swabs. Prevalence of C. trachomatis was 15.8% among 487 women and 13.6% among 491 men (no Neisseria gonorrhoeae positive patients were found). C. trachomatis detection was independently and positively associated with being tested for contact tracing, 18-24 years of age, and reporting ≥ 6 sexual partners within 12 months. Reporting sex with non-residents of Iceland was associated with a lower risk of C. trachomatis infection. Both assays had a high sensitivity in detection of C. trachomatis (Aptima Combo 2: 100%; cobas 4800 CT/NG: 95.1%) and high specificity (100% and 99.6%, respectively). The high local prevalence of C. trachomatis and increased acquisition risk following sex with residents are of public health concern. Keywords: Iceland; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; nucleic acid amplification; prevalence; risk factor; sexually transmitted disease; Chlamydia trachomatis.
    • Onychomycosis in Icelandic swimmers

      Gudnadottir, G; Hilmarsdottir, I; Sigurgeirsson, B; Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavík. (Society for the Publication of Acta Dermato-Venereologica, 1999-09-01)
      We investigated visitors to a swimming pool in Reykjavik to determine whether onychomycosis of the toenails is more prevalent in swimmers than in the general population, where the prevalence is believed to be between 3 and 8%. A total of 266 swimmers over the age of 17 years were interviewed and examined. When an onychomycosis was suspected a nail specimen was taken for mycological examination. Onychomycosis was clinically suspected in 105 cases (40%). In 60 cases (23%) a dermatophyte infection was confirmed by culture and 14 cases (5%) were microscopy-positive only. The prevalence of culture-positive onychomycosis was 15% in women and 26% in men. Our results suggest that onychomycosis of the toenails is at least 3 times more prevalent in swimmers than in the rest of the population.
    • Patient-reported Outcomes and Clinical Response in Patients with Moderate-to-severe Plaque Psoriasis Treated with Tonsillectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

      Thorleifsdottir, Ragna Hlin; Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Laufey; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Olafsson, Jón Hjaltalin; Sigurdsson, Martin Ingi; Petersen, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Johann Eli; Johnston, Andrew; Valdimarsson, Helgi; [ 1 ] Univ Iceland, Dermatol Sect, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland Show the Organization-Enhanced name(s) [ 2 ] Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Dermatol, Uppsala, Sweden [ 3 ] Landspitali Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Dept Immunol, Reykjavik, Iceland [ 4 ] Landspitali Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Dept Anesthesiol & Crit Care, Reykjavik, Iceland [ 5 ] Landspitali Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Dept Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, Reykjavik, Iceland Show the Organization-Enhanced name(s) [ 6 ] Univ Michigan, Sch Med, Dept Dermatol, Ann Arbor, MI USA (Acta Dermato-Venereologica, 2017-03-10)
      Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with profound effects on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Twenty-nine patients with plaque psoriasis and a history of streptococcal-associated psoriasis exacerbations were randomly assigned to tonsillectomy (n = 15) or control (n = 14) groups and followed for 24 months. Patients were evaluated with the Psoriasis Disability Index, Psoriasis Life Stress Inventory and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. HRQoL and psoriasis-related stress improved significantly in the tonsillectomy group compared with the control group (p = 0.037 and p = 0.002, respectively), with a mean 50% improvement in HRQoL and a mean 59% improvement in psoriasis-induced stress. Clinical improvement correlated significantly with improved HRQoL (r = 0.297, p = 0.008) and psoriasis-related stress (r = 0.310, p = 0.005). Of the tonsillectomized patients, 87% concluded that the procedure was worthwhile. Tonsillectomy may improve quality of life for selected patients with plaque psoriasis.
    • Psoriasis treatment: bathing in a thermal lagoon combined with UVB, versus UVB treatment only

      Olafsson, J H; Sigurgeirsson, B; Palsdottir, R; Department of Dermatology, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. (Taylor & Francis, 1996-05-01)
      We have compared bathing in a thermal lagoon in Iceland, combined with UVB treatment, to UVB treatment only in an open comparative study. Twenty-three psoriasis patients bathed 3 times daily and were treated with UVB 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The control group was only treated with UVB 5 times a week for 4 weeks. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PSAI) was used to estimate the severity of the disease. The mean PASI score in the bathing group decreased from 20.8 to 2.8 (p < 0.01). In the control UVB group, the PASI score decreased from 16. 7 to 6.9. The percentage difference between the groups was significant after 1, 2, 2 and 4 weeks. Bathing in the lagoon combined with UVB was found to be a very effective treatment and better than UVB treatment in our control group.
    • Quality of life and prevalence of arthritis reported by 5,795 members of the Nordic Psoriasis Associations. Data from the Nordic Quality of Life Study

      Zachariae, Hugh; Zachariae, Robert; Blomqvist, Kirsti; Davidsson, Steingrimur; Molin, Lars; Mørk, Cato; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Department of Dermatology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. hzach@dadlnet.dk (Society for the Publication of Acta Dermato-Venereologica, 2002-03-01)
      Quality of life measures are widely used in dermatology as well as in rheumatology, but there are no large studies taking arthritis into consideration when studying quality of life in psoriasis. The aim of this study was to investigate psoriasis-related quality of life in a large sample of members of the psoriasis associations from the Nordic countries including an arthritis-related evaluation. The prevalence of reported arthritis within the groups was also estimated. An Arthritis Disability Index suitable for parallel use together with Finlay's Psoriasis Disability Index was constructed. A total of 5,795 members and 702 patients seen by Nordic dermatologists rated the severity of their disease and completed the Psoriasis Disability Index formula and a Psoriasis Life Stress Inventory, and if arthritis had been diagnosed, the Arthritis Disability Index formula. Approximately 30% of all psoriatic patients, irrespective of group, received a diagnosis of arthritis either by their dermatologist or a rheumatologist. Members previously hospitalized for their disease had a higher frequency of arthritis (41%) than those without a history of hospitalization (23%). The highest prevalence of arthritis was found in Norway (33.8%). Members with arthritis exhibited greater impairment of psoriasis-related quality of life, longer disease duration, and greater self-reported disease severity for psoriasis. Important predictors for impairment of arthritis-related quality of life were pain, number of affected joints, and restriction of joint mobility. These data show, that the prevalence of arthritis in psoriasis may be significantly higher than the previously accepted average of 7%. The results demonstrate that when studying quality of life in psoriasis, arthritis and arthralgia are important independent factors to be included in the evaluation.
    • Selective increase of IgA rheumatoid factor in patients with gluten sensitivity

      Sökjer, M; Jonsson, T; Bodvarsson, S; Jonsdottir, I; Valdimarsson, H; Department of Immunology, National University Hospital, Landspítalinn, Reykjavík, Iceland. (Taylor & Francis, 1995-03)
      An increased prevalence of raised autoantibodies, including rheumatoid factor, has been reported in patients with gluten sensitivity. However, rheumatoid factor has only been measured in small groups of patients and the findings have been conflicting. In this study IgM, IgG and IgA rheumatoid factor was measured in 89 patients with dermatitis herpetiformis and 22 patients with coeliac disease and compared with 89 normal controls. There was an increased prevalence of elevated IgA rheumatoid factor in the patients with dermatitis herpetiformis (13.5%; p = 0.036) and coeliac disease (18.2%; p = 0.078), while no such increase was found for the IgM or IgG rheumatoid factor isotypes. This selective increase of IgA rheumatoid factor suggests that rheumatoid factor production in patients with gluten sensitivity primarily results from immunological activation in the gut mucosa.
    • Throat Infections are Associated with Exacerbation in a Substantial Proportion of Patients with Chronic Plaque Psoriasis.

      Thorleifsdottir, Ragna H; Eysteinsdóttir, Jenna H; Olafsson, Jón H; Sigurdsson, Martin I; Johnston, Andrew; Valdimarsson, Helgi; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; [ 1 ] Univ Iceland, Dermatol Sect, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland [ 2 ] Landspitali Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Dept Immunol, Reykjavik, Iceland [ 3 ] Landspitali Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Dept Med, Reykjavik, Iceland [ 4 ] Uppsala Univ, Akad Univ Hosp, Dept Dermatol, Uppsala, Sweden [ 5 ] Univ Michigan, Sch Med, Ann Arbor, MI USA (Acta Dermato-Venereologica, 2016-08-23)
      Streptococcal throat infections are known to trigger or exacerbate psoriasis, and several studies support the benefit of tonsillectomy. To evaluate the potential of tonsillectomy as a treatment, we used a retrospective study-specific questionnaire to assess the proportion of psoriasis patients with sore throat-associated psoriasis exacerbations. Our survey sampled 275 psoriasis patients. Of patients with plaque psoriasis, 42% reported sore throat-associated psoriasis exacerbations, and of patients with confirmed streptococcal infections, 72% reported aggravation. Notably, women and patients with early onset psoriasis were more likely to report psoriasis exacerbation after a sore throat (p < 0.001, p = 0.046, respectively). Other psoriasis aggravation factors were more common in patients with sore throat-associated exacerbations (p < 0.01). Of tonsillectomized patients, 49% reported subsequent improvement and had more frequent sore throat-associated aggravation of psoriasis than patients who did not improve after tonsillectomy (p = 0.015). These findings suggest a closer association between sore throats, streptococcal throat infections and plaque psoriasis than reported previously.
    • Treatment of psoriasis in the Nordic countries: a questionnaire survey from 5739 members of the psoriasis associations data from the Nordic Quality of Life Study

      Zachariae, H; Zachariae, R; Blomqvist, K; Davidsson, S; Molin, L; Mørk, C; Sigurgeirsson, B; Department of Dermatology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. (Society for the Publication of Acta Dermato-Venereologica, 2001-05-01)
      The data from a questionnaire-based study of 5,739 members of the psoriasis associations of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the Faeroe Islands showed that the two most commonly used active agents were topical steroids (89.7% total use and 49.4% present use) and calcipotriol (73.1% total use and 35.8% present use), with only small variations between the countries. Marked differences between the countries were, however, found within all other types of psoriasis therapy, including the so-called alternative treatments. Significant priorities varied between the different countries. The use of dithranol in Finland was almost twice the average. While 14.2% of Danish members had received grenz-rays within the last week only 0.1% of the Finns had been given the same treatment. Psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) was being used by 13.1% of the Finnish psoriatics compared with 3.8% of Danes, while PUVA was almost non-existent on the Faeroe Islands. The use of non-PUVA phototherapy was highest in Norway and Sweden. Almost 10% of the Danes were presently on methotrexate, which was used far more than etretinate/acitretin or cyclosporine. In contrast, Finnish patients more often received etretinate than other systemic agents, and in Iceland there was a higher present use of cyclosporine than of etretinate. The popularity of alternative therapies was highest in Iceland, where 26.6% had taken such medication during the last week. The results of the study suggest that different treatment patterns should be taken into consideration when discussing the prognosis of psoriasis in different countries.