• Bleeding Complications After Percutaneous Native Kidney Biopsy: Results From the Boston Kidney Biopsy Cohort.

      Palsson, Ragnar; Short, Samuel A P; Kibbelaar, Zoe A; Amodu, Afolarin; Stillman, Isaac E; Rennke, Helmut G; McMahon, Gearoid M; Waikar, Sushrut S; 1Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 2Division of Nephrology, National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. 3Renal Section, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 4Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 5Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. (Elsevier Science, 2020-03-04)
      Background: The major risk of kidney biopsy is severe bleeding. Numerous risk factors for bleeding after biopsy have been reported, but findings have been inconsistent. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of adult patients enrolled in a native kidney biopsy cohort study to identify major bleeding events (red blood cell [RBC] transfusions, invasive procedures, kidney loss, or death). We used logistic and linear regression models to identify characteristics associated with postbiopsy RBC transfusions and decline in hemoglobin within a week after the procedure. Results: Major bleeding events occurred in 28 of 644 (4.3%) patients (28 required an RBC transfusion, 4 underwent angiographic intervention, and 1 had open surgery to control bleeding). No patient lost a kidney or died because of the biopsy. Postbiopsy RBC transfusion risk was driven by the baseline hemoglobin level (odds ratio [OR] 13.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.4-34.1 for hemoglobin <10 vs. ≥10 g/dl). After adjusting for hemoglobin, no other patient characteristics were independently associated with RBC transfusions. Female sex (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.04-0.32), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (β = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.14-0.49), and baseline hemoglobin (β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.05-0.13, per g/dl increase) were independently associated with a larger drop in hemoglobin. Histopathologic lesions were not independently associated with major bleeding after biopsy. Conclusion: Biopsies were generally well tolerated. Baseline hemoglobin was the dominant risk factor for RBC transfusions, but female sex and eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were also associated with a larger decline in hemoglobin after the procedure.