• Hyperphagia modifies FA profiles of plasma phospholipids, plasma FFA, and adipose tissue TAG

      Skuladottir, Gudrun V; Olason, Pall I; Jonsson, Logi; Skarphedinsson, Jon O; Eriksdottir, Vedis H; Atlason, Palmi Th; Franzson, Leifur; Schiöth, Helgi B; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland (American Oil Chemists Society, 2003-11-01)
      Hyperphagia was achieved by continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of a melanocortin receptor antagonist (HS024; Neosystem, Strasbourg, France) in rats. The effects of hyperphagia on FA composition and concentration of plasma phospholipids (PL), plasma FFA, and adipose tissue TAG were studied in rats for 8 d [short-term hyperphagia (STH); n = 8], or 28 d [long-term hyperphagia (LTH); n = 9]. The control rats were treated with artificial cerebrospinal fluid for 8 d (n = 8) or 28 d (n = 10). The rats were fed the same regular diet. In STH rats the plasma PL and fasting plasma FFA contained higher concentrations of saturated FA (SFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA), and plasma FFA contained lower n-6 PUFA than in the control rats. In LTH rats the plasma PL contained higher concentrations of SFA, MUFA, and n-3 PUFA and higher proportions of 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-9 at the expense of 18:2n-6 than in the control rats. In LTH rats the abundant dietary intake of 18:2n-6 did not enrich 18:2n-6 of the plasma PL or adipose tissue TAG. In LTH rats the fasting plasma FFA contained more than twofold higher concentrations of SFA and MUFA, and higher proportions of 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-9 at the expense of 18:2n-6 than in the control rats. This animal obesity model shows that LTH affects the FA composition and concentration of plasma PL, plasma FFA, and adipose tissue TAG, a result consistent with changes associated with increased risk of various diseases in humans. These results also demonstrate that LTH alters the FA composition of plasma PL and adipose tissue TAG in a way that does not reflect the FA composition of dietary fat.
    • Positive association between plasma antioxidant capacity and n-3 PUFA in red blood cells from women.

      Thorlaksdottir, A Y; Skuladottir, G V; Petursdottir, A L; Tryggvadottir, L; Ogmundsdottir, H M; Eyfjord, J E; Jonsson, J J; Hardardottir, I; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. (American Oil Chemists Society, 2006-02-01)
      PUFA are susceptible to oxidation. However, the chain-reaction of lipid peroxidation can be interrupted by antioxidants. Whether an increased concentration of PUFA in the body leads to decreased antioxidant capacity and/or increased consumption of antioxidants is not known. To elucidate the relationship between plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the concentration of antioxidant vitamins, and the proportion of PUFA in red blood cells (RBC), plasma TAC was measured by a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay in blood samples from 99 Icelandic women. Concentrations of tocopherols and carotenoids in the plasma were determined by HPLC, and the FA composition of RBC total lipids was analyzed by GC. Plasma TAC and the plasma concentration of alpha-tocopherol correlated positively with the proportion of total n-3 PUFA, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 in RBC, whereas the plasma lycopene concentration correlated negatively with the proportion of total n-3 PUFA and 20:5n-3. On the other hand, plasma TAC correlated negatively with the proportion of n-6 PUFA in RBC. Plasma TAC also correlated positively with the plasma concentration of alpha-tocopherol, alcohol consumption, and age. Both the plasma concentration of alpha-tocopherol and age correlated positively with the proportion of n-3 PUFA in RBC; however, n-3 PUFA contributed independently to the correlation with plasma TAC. Because the proportion of n-3 PUFA in RBC reflects the consumption of n-3 PUFA, these results suggest that dietary n-3 PUFA do not have adverse effects on plasma TAC or the plasma concentration of most antioxidant vitamins.