• Associations between intraoperative factors and surgeons' self-assessed operative satisfaction.

      Erestam, Sofia; Bock, David; Erichsen Andersson, Annette; Bjartell, Anders; Carlsson, Stefan; Stinesen Kollberg, Karin; Sjoberg, Daniel; Steineck, Gunnar; Stranne, Johan; Thorsteinsdottir, Thordis; et al. (Springer, 2019-03-18)
      Background: Little is known concerning what may influence surgeon satisfaction with a surgical procedure and its associations with intraoperative factors. The objective was to explore the relationships between surgeons' self-assessed satisfaction with performed radical prostatectomies and intraoperative factors such as technical difficulties and intraoperative complications as reported by the surgeon subsequent to the operation. Methods: We utilized prospectively collected data from the controlled LAPPRO trial where 4003 patients with prostate cancer underwent open (ORP) or robot-assisted laparoscopic (RALP) radical prostatectomy. Patients were included from fourteen centers in Sweden during 2008-2011. Surgeon satisfaction was assessed by questionnaires at the end of each operation. Intraoperative factors included time for the surgical procedure as well as difficulties and complications in various steps of the operation. To model surgeon satisfaction, a mixed effect logistic regression was used. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The surgeons were satisfied in 2905 (81%) and dissatisfied in 702 (19%) of the surgical procedures. Surgeon satisfaction was not statistically associated with type of surgical technique (ORP vs. RALP) (OR 1.36, CI 0.76; 2.43). Intraoperative factors such as technical difficulties or complications, for example, suturing of the anastomosis was negatively associated with surgeon satisfaction (OR 0.24, CI 0.19; 0.30). Conclusions: Our data indicate that technical difficulties and/or intraoperative complications were associated with a surgeon's level of satisfaction with an operation. Keywords: Intraoperative factors; Prostate cancer; Self-assessment; Surgeon; Surgical performance; Surgical satisfaction.
    • Complete worldwide operative experience in laparoscopic diaphragm pacing: results and differences in spinal cord injured patients and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients

      Onders, Raymond P; Elmo, Maryjo; Khansarinia, Saeid; Bowman, Brock; Yee, John; Road, Jeremy; Bass, Barbara; Dunkin, Brian; Ingvarsson, Pall E; Oddsdottir, Margret; et al. (Springer, 2009-07-01)
      BACKGROUND: Diaphragm movement is essential for adequate ventilation, and when the diaphragm is adversely affected patients face lifelong positive-pressure mechanical ventilation or death. This report summarizes the complete worldwide multicenter experience with diaphragm pacing stimulation (DPS) to maintain and provide diaphragm function in ventilator-dependent spinal cord injury (SCI) patients and respiratory-compromised patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It will highlight the surgical experiences and the differences in diaphragm function in these two groups of patients. METHODS: In prospective Food and Drug Administration (FDA) trials, patients underwent laparoscopic diaphragm motor point mapping with intramuscular electrode implantation. Stimulation of the electrodes ensued to condition and strengthen the diaphragm. RESULTS: From March of 2000 to September of 2007, a total of 88 patients (50 SCI and 38 ALS) were implanted with DPS at five sites. Patient age ranged from 18 to 74 years. Time from SCI to implantation ranged from 3 months to 27 years. In 87 patients the diaphragm motor point was mapped with successful implantation of electrodes with the only failure the second SCI patient who had a false-positive phrenic nerve study. Patients with ALS had much weaker diaphragms identified surgically, requiring trains of stimulation during mapping to identify the motor point at times. There was no perioperative mortality even in ALS patients with forced vital capacity (FVC) below 50% predicted. There was no cardiac involvement from diaphragm pacing even when analyzed in ten patients who had pre-existing cardiac pacemakers. No infections occurred even with simultaneous gastrostomy tube placements for ALS patients. In the SCI patients 96% were able to use DPS to provide ventilation replacing their mechanical ventilators and in the ALS studies patients have been able to delay the need for mechanical ventilation up to 24 months. CONCLUSION: This multicenter experience has shown that laparoscopic diaphragm motor point mapping, electrode implantation, and pacing can be safely performed both in SCI and in ALS. In SCI patients it allows freedom from ventilator and in ALS patients it delays the need for ventilators, increasing survival.
    • Early diagnosis is associated with improved clinical outcomes in benign esophageal perforation: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

      Vermeulen, Bram D; van der Leeden, Britt; Ali, Jawad T; Gudbjartsson, Tomas; Hermansson, Michael; Low, Donald E; Adler, Douglas G; Botha, Abraham J; D'Journo, Xavier B; Eroglu, Atila; et al. (Springer, 2020-07-17)
      Background: Time of diagnosis (TOD) of benign esophageal perforation is regarded as an important risk factor for clinical outcome, although convincing evidence is lacking. The aim of this study is to assess whether time between onset of perforation and diagnosis is associated with clinical outcome in patients with iatrogenic esophageal perforation (IEP) and Boerhaave's syndrome (BS). Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane library through June 2018 to identify studies. Authors were invited to share individual patient data and a meta-analysis was performed (PROSPERO: CRD42018093473). Patients were subdivided in early (≤ 24 h) and late (> 24 h) TOD and compared with mixed effects multivariable analysis while adjusting age, gender, location of perforation, initial treatment and center. Primary outcome was overall mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of hospital stay, re-interventions and ICU admission. Results: Our meta-analysis included IPD of 25 studies including 576 patients with IEP and 384 with BS. In IEP, early TOD was not associated with overall mortality (8% vs. 13%, OR 2.1, 95% CI 0.8-5.1), but was associated with a 23% decrease in ICU admissions (46% vs. 69%, OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.2), a 22% decrease in re-interventions (23% vs. 45%, OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.7) and a 36% decrease in length of hospital stay (14 vs. 22 days, p < 0.001), compared with late TOD. In BS, no associations between TOD and outcomes were found. When combining IEP and BS, early TOD was associated with a 6% decrease in overall mortality (10% vs. 16%, OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-3.9), a 19% decrease in re-interventions (26% vs. 45%, OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2) and a 35% decrease in mean length of hospital stay (16 vs. 22 days, p = 0.001), compared with late TOD. Conclusions: This individual patient data meta-analysis confirms the general opinion that an early (≤ 24 h) compared to a late diagnosis (> 24 h) in benign esophageal perforations, particularly in IEP, is associated with improved clinical outcome. Keywords: Esophageal rupture; Individual patient data meta-analysis; Time of diagnosis.
    • Laparoscopic adrenalectomies: A nationwide single-surgeon experience

      Bjornsson, Bergthor; Birgisson, Gudjon; Oddsdottir, Margret; Department of General Surgery, Landspitali University Hospital, Hringbraut, 101, Reykjavik, Iceland. bergthb@gmail.com (Springer, 2008-03-01)
      BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) was first performed in Iceland in 1997. Since then, all procedures for presumed benign lesions of the adrenals have been performed laparoscopically in a single center. Compared with conventional adrenalectomy, LA appears to achieve superior results in terms of recovery, hospital stay, and morbidity. This study aimed to evaluate the results of LA in Iceland. METHODS: The hospital records of all patients who underwent LA in Iceland from 1997 through 2005 were reviewed. The preoperative diagnosis was documented, as well as the pathologic diagnosis, operative details, complications, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: In 49 operations, 53 adrenal glands were removed from 48 patients (37 women and 11 men). The mean patient age was 53.6 years (range, 24.4-78.8 years). The left adrenal was removed from 29 patients, the right adrenal from 14 patients, and both adrenals from 5 patients. The most common indications and diagnoses included 17 nonsecreting tumors (12 adenomas, 3 hyperplasias, 1 complex adrenal cyst, and 1 hemangioma), 12 aldosteronomas (10 aldosteronomas and 2 nodular hyperplasias), and 10 pheochromocytomas (9 confirmed, 1 adrenal hyperplasia). Other indications and diagnoses were less common. The mean operative time was 168 min (range, 87-370 min) for unilateral operations and 412 min (range, 345-480 min) for bilateral operations. The mean blood loss was 117 ml (range, 0-650 ml) for unilateral operations and 200 ml (range, 0-350 ml) for bilateral operations. The complications were mild pancreatitis (n = 1), urinary tract infection (n = 1), atelectasis (n = 1), mild congestive heart failure (n = 2), and transient corneal abrasion (n = 1). No conversion to open procedure was needed. The mean tumor size was 3.5 cm (range, 1.5-6.2 cm), and the mean postoperative hospital stay was 2.6 days (range, 1-6 days). CONCLUSION: The results of laparoscopic adrenalectomies in Iceland for benign lesions of the adrenals are comparable with published results from large referral centers.
    • Quality of life and fecal incontinence after transanal endoscopic microsurgery for benign and malignant rectal lesions.

      Valsdottir, Elsa B; Yarandi, Shadi S; Marks, John H; Marks, Gerald J; [ 1 ] Lankenau Hosp, Dept Colorectal Surg, Wynnewood, PA 19096 USA [ 2 ] Inst Med Res, Wynnewood, PA 19096 USA [ 3 ] Univ Hosp Iceland, Dept Surg, Reykjavik, Iceland [ 4 ] Emory Univ, Sch Med, Atlanta, GA USA (Springer, 2014-01)
      Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a minimally invasive treatment used to excise a variety of rectal lesions. Potential overstretching of the sphincter's musculature due to dilation of the anal canal to allow placement of a 40-mm-wide scope combined with partial resection of the rectum and subsequent loss of rectal volume creates a concern regarding anorectal function postoperatively. Data regarding patient satisfaction with anorectal function and quality of life after TEM are scant. This report presents data on patient satisfaction gathered during a period of 10 years.