• Defining Extreme Phenotypes of OSA Across International Sleep Centers.

      Rizzatti, Fabiola G; Mazzotti, Diego R; Mindel, Jesse; Maislin, Greg; Keenan, Brendan T; Bittencourt, Lia; Chen, Ning-Hung; Cistulli, Peter A; McArdle, Nigel; Pack, Frances M; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-04-15)
      Background: Extreme phenotypes of OSA have not been systematically defined. Research question: This study developed objective definitions of extreme phenotypes of OSA by using a multivariate approach. The utility of these definitions for identifying characteristics that confer predisposition toward or protection against OSA is shown in a new prospective sample. Study design and methods: In a large international sample, race-specific liability scores were calculated from a weighted logistic regression that included age, sex, and BMI. Extreme cases were defined as individuals with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 30 events/hour but low likelihood of OSA based on age, sex, and BMI (liability scores > 90th percentile). Similarly, extreme controls were individuals with an AHI < 5 events/hour but high likelihood of OSA (liability scores < 10th percentile). Definitions were applied to a prospective sample from the Sleep Apnea Global Interdisciplinary Consortium, and differences in photography-based craniofacial and intraoral phenotypes were evaluated. Results: This study included retrospective data from 81,338 individuals. A total of 4,168 extreme cases and 1,432 extreme controls were identified by using liability scores. Extreme cases were younger (43.1 ± 14.7 years), overweight (28.6 ± 6.8 kg/m2), and predominantly female (71.1%). Extreme controls were older (53.8 ± 14.1 years), obese (34.0 ± 8.1 kg/m2), and predominantly male (65.8%). These objective definitions identified 29 extreme cases and 87 extreme controls among 1,424 Sleep Apnea Global Interdisciplinary Consortium participants with photography-based phenotyping. Comparisons suggest that a greater cervicomental angle increases risk for OSA in the absence of clinical risk factors, and smaller facial widths are protective in the presence of clinical risk factors. Interpretation: This objective definition can be applied in sleep centers throughout the world to consistently define OSA extreme phenotypes for future studies on genetic, anatomic, and physiologic pathways to OSA.