• T-and B-lymphocyte subsets in patients with Dupuytren's disease. Correlations with disease severity

      Gudmundsson, K G; Arngrimsson, R; Arinbjarnarson, S; Olafsson, A; Jonsson, T; The Health Care Center and Region Hospital, Blonduos, Iceland. (Churchill Livingstone, 1998-12-01)
      Previous reports have indicated that inflammatory mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of Dupuytren's disease and it has even been suggested that this condition is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disorder. We investigated peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets from 21 patients with Dupuytren's disease and compared them with ten healthy blood donors. The Dupuytren's patients had an increase in DR+ T-cells compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, patients with both palmar and plantar involvement had a higher percentage of DR+ T-cells than those with only the palm affected. The percentage of circulating CD5+ B-cells was lower in the Dupuytren's patients compared with the control group; this feature was marginally significant for the whole group of Dupuytren's patients but was strongest in the group of patients with both palmar and plantar involvement. These findings support previous suggestions that immunological mechanisms, involving activated T-cells and probably also B-cells, are involved in the pathogenesis of Dupuytren's disease.
    • T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in patients 1-45 years treated with the pediatric NOPHO ALL2008 protocol.

      Quist-Paulsen, P; Toft, N; Heyman, M; Abrahamsson, J; Griškevičius, L; Hallböök, H; Jónsson, Ó G; Palk, K; Vaitkeviciene, G; Vettenranta, K; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2019-10-14)
      The NOPHO ALL2008 is a population-based study using an unmodified pediatric protocol in patients 1-45 years of age with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Patients with T-ALL were given a traditional pediatric scheme if fast responding (minimal residual disease (MRD) < 0.1% day 29), or intensive block-based chemotherapy if slow responding (MRD > 0.1% day 29). Both treatment arms included pediatric doses of high-dose methotrexate and asparaginase. If MRD ≥ 5% on day 29 or ≥0.1% after consolidation, patients were assigned to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The 5-year overall survival of the 278 T-ALL patients was 0.75 (95% CI 0.69-0.81), being 0.82 (0.74-0.88) for patients 1.0-9.9 years, 0.76 (0.66-0.86) for those 10.0-17.9 years, and 0.65 (0.55-0.75) for the older patients. The risk of death in first remission was significantly higher in adults (12%) compared with the 1-9 years group (4%). The MRD responses in the three age groups were similar, and only a nonsignificant increase in relapse risk was found in adults. In conclusion, an unmodified pediatric protocol in patients 1-45 years is effective in all age groups. The traditional pediatric treatment schedule was safe for all patients, but the intensive block therapy led to a high toxic death rate in adults.
    • Taking blame for antisocial acts and its relationship with personality

      Gudjonsson, Gisli H; Sigurdsson, Jón Fridrik; Einarsson, Emil (Elsiver, 2007-07-01)
      The main aim of the present study was to investigate the motivation behind people taking the blame for another person’s antisocial acts. One thousand four hundred and thirty-two students in further education in Iceland completed a specially constructed Motivation for Taking Blame Scale (MTBS), along with personality tests measuring antisocial personality traits, self-esteem, and compliance. Two hundred and thirty-two (16%) claimed to have taken the blame for an antisocial act somebody else had done (mainly for property offences and criminal damage). The majority (70%) took the blame for a friend. Principal component analysis of the MTBS revealed five factors: Excitement, Pressure, Disregard, Avoidance, and Cover-up. EPQ Psychoticism was the single best predictor for the Excitement and Disregard motives, whereas GCS Compliance was the only significant predictor for the Pressure and Avoidance motives. The Cover-up motive, although the most commonly endorsed factor, had a poor relationship with the personality measures. There are a number of different motives for taking blame, but this is most commonly done to protect the guilty person and do him or her a favour. Personality, particularly personality disorder traits and compliance, are significant predictor variables for taking blame for others.
    • Tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a population-based study in Iceland.

      Axelsson, Tomas A; Hrafnkelsson, Jon; Olafsdottir, Elinborg J; Jonasson, Jon G; Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland, Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Dept Oncol, Reykjavik, Iceland, Iceland Canc Soc, Iceland Canc Registry, Reykjavik, Iceland, Natl Univ Hosp Reykjavik, Dept Pathol, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland (2015-02)
      The tall cell variant (TCV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is an aggressive variant of PTC that is believed to have worse outcomes than classical PTC. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence, survival, and disease recurrence of patients with TCV and compare them with other PTC in a whole population.
    • Tannslit Íslendinga til forna

      Svend Richter; Sigfús Þór Elíasson; TANNLÆKNADEILD HÁSKÓLA ÍSLANDS (Tannlæknafélag Íslands, 2010)
      From the archaeological site at Skeljastadir in Thjorsardalur, 915 teeth in 49 skulls were availible for evaluation, 24 female, 24 male and one with undetermined sex. Two methods were used to evaluate tooth wear. The first according to the classification: 0. no wear, 1. wear in enamel, 2. dentin exposed, 3. exposure of pulp cavity. The second method was based on Brothwell´s thirteen wear stages. For age estimation five methods were used based on devlopmental stages of teeth, one on tooth wear and one of ectocranial suture closure. The adult skeletons were sexed using morphological characteristics from skull, mandible and in few instances pelvis. There was significantly more (p < 0.001) wear in the older age groups than in the younger groups and no significant difference between sexes. The highest score of wear was on first molars, which also had the highest prevalence of root abcesses, and the lowest score was on third molars. Tooth wear seen in the Skeljastaðir population has all the similarities seen in wear from coarse and rough diet. But in some instances it has similar characteristics as seen in erosion in modern Icelanders consuming excessive amounts softdrinks and other acidic beverages. A mixture of acidic whey and water was a daily drink in Iceland until the 20th century and whey was used for preservation of food. The consumption of acidic drinks and food in addition to coarse diet has likely played a sizable role in the dental wear of the Skeljastaðir population.
    • Targeted prostate cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the initial screening round of the IMPACT study.

      Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Page, Elizabeth C; Castro, Elena; Lilja, Hans; Vickers, Andrew; Sjoberg, Daniel; Assel, Melissa; Foster, Christopher S; Mitchell, Gillian; Drew, Kate; et al. (Elsevier Science BV, 2014-09)
      Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls) is an international consortium of 62 centres in 20 countries evaluating the use of targeted PCa screening in men with BRCA1/2 mutations.
    • Targeted prostate cancer screening in men with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 detects aggressive prostate cancer: preliminary analysis of the results of the IMPACT study.

      Mitra, Anita V; Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Barbachano, Yolanda; Page, Elizabeth C; Foster, C S; Jameson, C; Mitchell, G; Lindeman, G J; Stapleton, A; Suthers, G; et al. (Blackwell Science, 2011-01)
      OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of targeted prostate cancer screening in men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, an international study, IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls), was established. This is the first multicentre screening study targeted at men with a known genetic predisposition to prostate cancer. A preliminary analysis of the data is reported. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Men aged 40-69 years from families with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were offered annual prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, and those with PSA > 3 ng/mL, were offered a prostate biopsy. Controls were men age-matched (± 5 years) who were negative for the familial mutation. RESULTS: In total, 300 men were recruited (205 mutation carriers; 89 BRCA1, 116 BRCA2 and 95 controls) over 33 months. At the baseline screen (year 1), 7.0% (21/300) underwent a prostate biopsy. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in ten individuals, a prevalence of 3.3%. The positive predictive value of PSA screening in this cohort was 47·6% (10/21). One prostate cancer was diagnosed at year 2. Of the 11 prostate cancers diagnosed, nine were in mutation carriers, two in controls, and eight were clinically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that the positive predictive value of PSA screening in BRCA mutation carriers is high and that screening detects clinically significant prostate cancer. These results support the rationale for continued screening in such men.
    • The tax-free year in Iceland: A natural experiment to explore the impact of a short-term increase in labor supply on the risk of heart attacks

      Ólafsdóttir, Thorhildur; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; University of Iceland, Oddi v/Sturlugötu, Reykjavík, Iceland b University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, Reykjavík, Iceland c Landspitali, National University Hospital, University of Iceland, Hringbraut, Reykjavik, Iceland (Elsevier, 2016-09)
      Evidence is mixed on whether society-wide economic conditions affect cardiovascular health and the reasons for the suggested relationship are largely untested. We explore whether a short-term increase in labor supply affects the probability of acute myocardial infarctions, using a natural experiment in Iceland. In 1987 personal income taxes were temporarily reduced to zero, resulting in an overall increase in labor supply. We merge and analyze individual-level, registry-based data on earnings and AMIs including all Icelandic men and women aged 45–74 during the period 1982–1992. The results support the prominent hypothesis of increased work as a mechanism explaining worsening heart health in upswings, for men aged 45–64 who were self-employed. We furthermore find a larger increase in probability of AMIs during the tax-free year in men aged 45–54 than men aged 55–64.
    • Taxonomy for complexity theory in the context of maternity care.

      Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne; Downe, Soo; Gottfreðsdóttir, Helga; Rijnders, Marlies; du Preez, Antoinette; Vaz Rebelo, Piedade; [ 1 ] Zuyd Univ, Res Ctr Midwifery Sci Maastricht, NL-6201 BG Maastricht, Netherlands [ 2 ] Univ Cent Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE, Lancs, England [ 3 ] Univ Iceland, Fac Nursing, Dept Midwifery, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland [ 4 ] TNO, NL-2301 DA Leiden, Netherlands [ 5 ] North West Univ, Sch Nursing Sci, ZA-2522 Potchefstroom, South Africa [ 6 ] Univ Coimbra, Dept Math, P-3001501 Coimbra, Portugal [ 7 ] Landspitali Univ Hosp Reykjavik, Midwifery Womens Clin, Res & Dev, Reykjavik, Iceland   Organization-Enhanced Name(s)      Landspitali National University Hospital (Elsevier Science, 2015-09)
      The linear focus of 'normal science' is unable toadequately take account of the complex interactions that direct health care systems. There is a turn towards complexity theory as a more appropriate framework for understanding system behaviour. However, a comprehensive taxonomy for complexity theory in the context of health care is lacking.
    • Teasing and social rejection among obese children enrolling in family-based behavioural treatment: effects on psychological adjustment and academic competencies.

      Gunnarsdottir, T; Njardvik, U; Olafsdottir, A S; Craighead, L W; Bjarnason, R; Centre of Public Health, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland (Nature, 2012-01)
      The first objective was to determine the prevalence of psychological maladjustment (emotional and behavioural problems), low academic competencies and teasing/social rejection among obese Icelandic children enrolling in a family-based behavioural treatment. A second objective was to explore the degree to which teasing/social rejection specifically contributes to children's psychological adjustment and academic competencies when controlling for other variables, including demographics, children's physical activity, parental depression and life-stress. Participants were 84 obese children (mean body mass index-standard deviation score=3.11, age range=7.52-13.61 years). Height and weight, demographics and measures of children's psychological adjustment, academic competencies, teasing/social rejection and physical activity were collected from children, parents and teachers. Parental depression and life-stress was self-reported. Over half the children exceeded cutoffs indicating concern on at least one measure of behavioural or emotional difficulties. Children endorsed significant levels of teasing/social rejection, with almost half acknowledging they were not popular with same-gender peers. Parent reports of peer problems were even higher, with over 90% of both boys and girls being rated by their parents as having significant peer difficulties. However, rates of low academic competencies as reported by teachers were not different from those of the general population. In regression analyses controlling for other variables, self-reported teasing/social rejection emerged as a significant contributor to explaining both child psychological adjustment and academic competencies. The results indicate that among obese children enrolled in family-based treatment, self-reported teasing/social rejection is quite high and it is associated with poorer psychological adjustment as well as lower academic competencies. Parent reports corroborate the presence of substantial peer difficulties, supporting the need to address peer relations with overweight children both in clinical practice and in public health interventions.
    • Technological dependency - the experience of using home ventilators and long-term oxygen therapy: patients' and families' perspective

      Ingadóttir, Thorbjorg Sóley; Jonsdottir, Helga (Taylor & Francis, 2006-03-01)
      Technological dependency is defined as a short or long-term reliance on machines and techniques to evaluate, satisfy or resolve health problems. In nursing technological dependency has been explored in the context of caring. Hitherto it has been maintained that technology and caring are contradictory, but a more prominent view is that technology and caring can and must be reconciled to provide high-quality care. This study describes patients' and families' experience of long-term home treatment with noninvasive ventilation during sleep with or without additional oxygen therapy. Considering the potential burden of undergoing this treatment the research question is: What is patients' and families' experience of being dependent on technical breathing assistance during sleep? The methodological approach draws from interpretive phenomenology and narrative analysis. Participants were six patients aged 45-70, five spouses and one daughter. Data, generated through two 1-hour semi-structured interviews with each pair of participants, were analysed into themes. Results are presented by the following narratives: (i) mixed blessing: life-saving treatment - meaningless exertion; (ii) compassion and understanding central amid use of complex machines; (iii) listening to the body; (iv) wanting to be seen as healthy; (v) dominance of technological thinking; and (vi) sustained work in maintaining the treatment. It is concluded that being dependent on technical breathing assistance during sleep, with or without oxygen, was a major life event for participants. The treatment was experienced as constraining and intrusive, particularly at the beginning, but concurrently it dramatically relieved difficulties for most participants. Regardless of its usefulness it provoked questions on purpose, indicating that the way to implement the treatment is crucial. Professionals need to pay close attention to how they introduce noninvasive ventilation technique, putting caring concern and respect for unique needs of patients and their families at the forefront.
    • Teenage contraceptive use in Iceland: a gender perspective

      Bender, Soley S; Kosunen, Elise; Faculty of Nursing, Univeresity of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. ssb@hi.es (Blackwell Scientific Publications, 2005-01-01)
      Different gender beliefs toward contraception may affect contraceptive use among teenagers and need to be explored for the development of sexuality education and services aimed at this age group. A cross-sectional national survey was conducted. A random sample of 1,405 sexually active teenagers, 1,181 girls, and 224 boys was studied. One quarter of the girls and one fifth of the boys had often/always used unsafe methods (withdrawal and natural methods), and about one third of the teenagers used contraceptive methods sporadically or not at all. Generally, teenage girls had more positive beliefs toward use of contraceptives, more positive friends, and more supportive parents regarding contraception than boys. Both genders were more likely to use contraceptives if they recognized the seriousness of pregnancy and easiness of making contraceptive plans. Additionally, teenage girls were more likely to use contraceptives if they were older at the time of sexual debut, were in a steady sexual relationship, considered contraceptive services good, believed in not taking chances, and their parents knew about their contraceptive use. Preventive strategies must primarily target those teenagers who start sexual debut early, are not in a steady relationship, and are not receiving parental support.
    • Temporal and geographic stability of the serogroup-specific invasive disease potential of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children.

      Brueggemann, Angela B; Peto, Timothy E A; Crook, Derrick W; Butler, Jay C; Kristinsson, Karl G; Spratt, Brian G; Academic Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. angela.brueggemann@ndcls.ox.ac.uk. (University of Chicago Press, 2004-10-01)
      A meta-analysis study design was used to analyze 7 data sets of invasive and carriage pneumococcal isolates recovered from children, to determine whether invasive disease potential differs for each serotype and, if so, whether it has changed over time or differs geographically. Serotype- and serogroup-specific odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for each study and as a pooled estimate, with use of serotype 14 as the reference group. ORs varied widely: the serotypes with the highest ORs (1, 5, and 7) were 60-fold more invasive than those with the lowest ORs (3, 6A, and 15). There was a significant inverse correlation between invasive disease and carriage prevalence for the serotypes that we considered, which implies that the most invasive serotypes and serogroups were the least commonly carried and that the most frequently carried were the least likely to cause invasive disease. There was no evidence of any temporal change or major geographical differences in serotype- or serogroup-specific invasive disease potential.
    • Temporal trends in the incidence of kidney stone disease.

      Edvardsson, Vidar O; Indridason, Olafur S; Haraldsson, Gudjon; Kjartansson, Olafur; Palsson, Runolfur; Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Div Nephrol, Landspitali, Childrens Med Ctr, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland, Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Div Nephrol, Landspitali, Internal Med Serv, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland, Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Div Radiol, Landspitali, Diagnost Med Serv, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland (Nature Pub. Group, 2013-01)
      Recent reports show an increased occurrence of kidney stone disease worldwide. To further evaluate and quantify this observation, we examined recent trends in the incidence of kidney stone disease in the adult population of Iceland over a 24-year period. Computerized databases of all major hospitals and medical imaging centers in Iceland were searched for International Classification of Diseases, radiologic and surgical procedure codes indicative of kidney stones in patients aged 18 years and older. The time trends in stone frequency of 5945 incident patients (63% men) were assessed by Poisson regression analysis. The majority of patients (90.5%) had symptomatic stone disease. The total incidence of kidney stones rose significantly from 108 per 100,000 in the first 5-year interval of the study to 138 per 100,000 in the last interval. The annual incidence of symptomatic stones did not increase significantly in either men or women. There was, however, a significant increase in the annual incidence of asymptomatic stones over time, from 7 to 24 per 100,000 for men and from 7 to 21 per 100,000 for women. The increase in the incidence of asymptomatic stones was only significant for women above 50 years of age and for men older than 40 years. Thus, we found a significant increase in the incidence of kidney stone disease resulting from increased detection of asymptomatic stones. This was largely due to a more frequent use of high-resolution imaging studies in older patients.
    • Ten years of external quality assessment (EQA) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility testing in Europe elucidate high reliability of data.

      Cole, Michelle J; Quaye, Nerteley; Jacobsson, Susanne; Day, Michaela; Fagan, Elizabeth; Ison, Catherine; Pitt, Rachel; Seaton, Shila; Woodford, Neil; Stary, Angelika; et al. (BioMed Central, 2019-03-25)
      Confidence in any diagnostic and antimicrobial susceptibility testing data is provided by appropriate and regular quality assurance (QA) procedures. In Europe, the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Susceptibility Programme (Euro-GASP) has been monitoring the antimicrobial susceptibility in Neisseria gonorrhoeae since 2004. Euro-GASP includes an external quality assessment (EQA) scheme as an essential component for a quality-assured laboratory-based surveillance programme. Participation in the EQA scheme enables any problems with the performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing to be identified and addressed, feeds into the curricula of laboratory training organised by the Euro-GASP network, and assesses the capacity of individual laboratories to detect emerging new, rare and increasing antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Participant performance in the Euro-GASP EQA scheme over a 10 year period (2007 to 2016, no EQA in 2013) was evaluated. Antimicrobial susceptibility category and MIC results from the first 5 years (2007-2011) of the Euro-GASP EQA were compared with the latter 5 years (2012-2016). These time periods were selected to assess the impact of the 2012 European Union case definitions for the reporting of antimicrobial susceptibility. Antimicrobial susceptibility category agreement in each year was ≥91%. Discrepancies in susceptibility categories were generally because the MICs for EQA panel isolates were on or very close to the susceptibility or resistance breakpoints. A high proportion of isolates tested over the 10 years were within one (≥90%) or two (≥97%) MIC log The high level of comparability of results in this EQA scheme indicates that high quality data are produced by the Euro-GASP participants and gives confidence in susceptibility and resistance data generated by laboratories performing decentralised testing.
    • Testicular germ cell tumours in Iceland

      Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Gudbjartsson, Tomas; Einarsson, Gudmundur Vikar; Magnusson, Kjartan; Thoroddsen, Asgeir; Bergthorsson, Jon Thor; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Björnsson, Johannes (Munksgaard, 2006-11-01)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the pathology of all germ cell tumours of the testis diagnosed in Iceland 1955-2002. A total of 214 patients were included in the study. The current age-standardized incidence was found to be 6.1 per 100,000 and had increased almost fourfold during the study period. Seminoma was diagnosed in 55% of cases. Non-seminomas were diagnosed in 45%, and these were further classified as mixed germ cell tumours (33%), embryonal carcinoma (8%), teratoma (3%), and yolk sac tumour (n=1). The mean age at diagnosis was significantly higher for the seminomas than the non-seminomas (38 years versus 29 years) (p<0.001) and the non-seminomas were diagnosed at a significantly higher stage than the seminomas (p<0.001). Thus, in seminoma patients the tumour was localized to the testis (stage I) in 81% of cases, in 17% of patients the tumour had spread to the lymph nodes (stage II or III), and only 2% had extranodal metastasis at diagnosis (stage IV). In contrast, in the non-seminoma patients, the tumours were found to be stage I in 56%, stage II or III in 24%, and stage IV in 20% of cases. No significant difference in staging was found between non-seminoma subtypes. Identification of necrosis or vascular invasion was significantly associated with metastatic disease at diagnosis (p=0.002). During the study period a significant increase in stage I tumours was found as well as a decrease in the size of the tumours.
    • Testing the 8-syndrome structure of the child behavior checklist in 30 societies

      Ivanova, Masha Y; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio Castro; Frigerio, Alessandra; Grietens, Hans; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; et al. (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2007-07-01)
      There is a growing need for multicultural collaboration in child mental health services, training, and research. To facilitate such collaboration, this study tested the 8-syndrome structure of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in 30 societies. Parents' CBCL ratings of 58,051 6- to 18-year-olds were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses, which were conducted separately for each society. Societies represented Asia; Africa; Australia; the Caribbean; Eastern, Western, Southern, and Northern Europe; the Middle East; and North America. Fit indices strongly supported the correlated 8-syndrome structure in each of 30 societies. The results support use of the syndromes in diverse societies.
    • Tests of linkage, allelic and genotypic association between schizophrenia and the gene for the D3 dopamine receptor, DRD3

      Kalsi, G; Curtis, D; Brynjolfsson, J; Sigmundsson, T; Petursson, H; Butler, R; Read, T; Murphy, P; Gurling, H M; Windeyer Institute of Medical Research, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, UCL Medical School, London, UK. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1998)
      No abstract
    • Tetraploidy in BRCA2 breast tumours.

      Jonsdottir, Asta Bjork; Stefansson, Olafur Andri; Bjornsson, Johannes; Jonasson, Jon G; Ogmundsdottir, Helga M; Eyfjord, Jorunn E; Cancer Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. (Elsevier Science, 2012-02)
      Tetraploidy and aneuploidy can be caused by cell division errors and are frequently observed in many human carcinomas. We have recently reported delayed cytokinesis in primary human fibroblasts from BRCA2 mutation carriers, implying a function for the BRCA2 tumour suppressor in completion of cell division. Here, we address ploidy aberrations in breast tumours derived from BRCA2 germline mutation carriers. Ploidy aberrations were evaluated from flow cytometry histograms on selected breast tumour samples (n=236), previously screened for local BRCA mutations. The ploidy between BRCA2-mutated (n=71) and matched sporadic (n=165) cancers was compared. Differences in ploidy distribution were examined with respect to molecular tumour subtypes, previously defined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray sections. Tetraploidy was significantly 3 times more common in BRCA2 breast cancers than sporadic. However, no differences were found in the overall ploidy distribution between BRCA2-mutation carriers and non-carriers. In BRCA2 cancers, tetraploidy was associated with luminal characteristics. The increased frequency of tetraploidy in BRCA2 associated cancers may be linked to cell division errors, particularly cytokinesis. Additionally, tetraploidy emerges predominantly in BRCA2 breast cancers displaying luminal rather than triple-negative phenotypes.
    • TFOS European Ambassador meeting: Unmet needs and future scientific and clinical solutions for ocular surface diseases.

      Erickson, Susan; Sullivan, Amy Gallant; Barabino, Stefano; Begovic, Enesa; Benitez-Del-Castillo, Jose M; Bonini, Stefano; Borges, José Salgado; Brzheskiy, Vladimir; Bulat, Nina; Cerim, Alma; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-06-03)
      The mission of the Tear Film & Ocular Surface Society (TFOS) is to advance the research, literacy, and educational aspects of the scientific field of the tear film and ocular surface. Fundamental to fulfilling this mission is the TFOS Global Ambassador program. TFOS Ambassadors are dynamic and proactive experts, who help promote TFOS initiatives, such as presenting the conclusions and recommendations of the recent TFOS DEWS II™, throughout the world. They also identify unmet needs, and propose future clinical and scientific solutions, for management of ocular surface diseases in their countries. This meeting report addresses such needs and solutions for 25 European countries, as detailed in the TFOS European Ambassador meeting in Rome, Italy, in September 2019.