• The v-erbA oncoprotein of the AEV transforming retrovirus binds to the promoter region of the erythroid-specific band 3 gene

      Ingvarsson, S; Vennström, B; Department of Pathology, National University Hospital, Reykjavík, Iceland. (Blackwell, 1994-05)
    • Vaccination of COPD patients with a pneumococcus type 6B tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine

      Jonsson, S; Vidarsson, G; Valdimarsson, H; Schiffman, G; Schneerson, R; Jonsdottir, I; Dept of Immunology, Landspitali-University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. (European Respiratory Society, 2002-10-01)
      This paper examines how pneumococcal type 6B polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid (Pn6B-TT) compares to a 23 valent pneumococcal vaccine (pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPS)-23) with respect to immunogenicity and serum opsonic activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with COPD aged 55-75 yrs were vaccinated with Pn6B-TT (n=10) or with PPS-23 (n=9). Healthy young adults (HA) were vaccinated with Pn6B-TT as controls. Total antibodies to serotype 6B polysaccharide were measured by radioimmunoassay and immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Opsonic activity was measured by a phagocytosis assay using human neutrophils as effector cells. The patient groups were comparable by age, smoking history, lung function and use of steroids. COPD patients vaccinated with Pn6B-TT or PPS-23 showed an increase in IgG antibodies and a nonsignificant increase in opsonic activity. This was similar to the increase in IgG and opsonic activity seen in HA. There was a significant correlation between antibody levels and opsonic activity in COPD patients vaccinated both with Pn6B-TT and PPS-23. Pneumococcal antibodies have been shown to confer protection from infection. The results of the present study indicate that protective immunity can be expected in elderly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients vaccinated with conjugate vaccines.
    • Vaccinia Virus Complement Control Protein Diminishes Formation of Atherosclerotic Lesions: Complement Is Centrally Involved in Atherosclerotic Disease

      Thorbjornsdottir, Perla; Kolka, Ragnhildur; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Bambir, Slavko H; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Kotwal, Girish J; Arason, Guðmundur J (New York Academy of Sciences, 2005)
      Complement is known to be activated in atherosclerotic lesions, but the importance of this event in disease pathology is a matter of debate. Studies of rabbits fed a high-fat diet have indicated complement activation as a rate-limiting step, whereas results from genetically modified mouse strains (ApoE(-/-) or LDLR(-/-)) have failed to support this finding. To resolve whether this reflects differences between species or between genetically driven and diet-induced disease, we studied the effect of a complement inhibitor, vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP), on C57BL/6 mice, the background strain of ApoE(-/-) and LDLR(-/-) mice. Atherosclerosis was induced by a high-fat diet, and VCP (20 mg/kg) was injected once per week after the eighth week. Fatty streak development was monitored at 15 weeks by microscopic examination of oil red-O-stained sections from the root of the aorta. VCP injections led to significant (50%) reduction of lesion size (P = 0.004). Lesions were marked by gradual accumulation of lipids and macrophages but did not develop beyond the fatty streak stage. VCP activity disappeared from serum in 4 days, and the possibility therefore exists that a higher level of protection may be achieved by more frequent injections. We conclude that the development of fatty streaks in diet-induced atherosclerotic disease can be significantly retarded by prophylactic treatment with a complement inhibitor. These results support previous findings from complement-deficient rabbits and suggest that the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in diet-induced disease differs from that induced by major defects in lipid metabolism.
    • Vacuum-assisted closure for successful treatment of a major contaminated gunshot chest-wound: a case report

      Gudbjartsson, Tomas; Sigurdsson, Helgi; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Kjartansson, Jens (Urban & Vogel, 2008-10-01)
      Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is a well-established treatment for complicated wound infections and chronic wounds, including poststernotomy mediastinitis. The use of VAC in treating high-energy trauma has been more limited. We present a case where VAC was successfully used to treat a contaminated self-inflicted gunshot-wound of the chest and abdomen.
    • The Val158Met COMT polymorphism is a modifier of the age at onset in Parkinson's disease with a sexual dimorphism.

      Klebe, Stephan; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Nalls, Michael A; Saad, Mohamad; Singleton, Andrew B; Bras, Jose M; Hardy, John; Simon-Sanchez, Javier; Heutink, Peter; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; et al. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2013-06)
      The catechol-O-methyltranferase (COMT) is one of the main enzymes that metabolise dopamine in the brain. The Val158Met polymorphism in the COMT gene (rs4680) causes a trimodal distribution of high (Val/Val), intermediate (Val/Met) and low (Met/Met) enzyme activity. We tested whether the Val158Met polymorphism is a modifier of the age at onset (AAO) in Parkinson's disease (PD). The rs4680 was genotyped in a total of 16 609 subjects from five independent cohorts of European and North American origin (5886 patients with PD and 10 723 healthy controls). The multivariate analysis for comparing PD and control groups was based on a stepwise logistic regression, with gender, age and cohort origin included in the initial model. The multivariate analysis of the AAO was a mixed linear model, with COMT genotype and gender considered as fixed effects and cohort and cohort-gender interaction as random effects. COMT genotype was coded as a quantitative variable, assuming a codominant genetic effect. The distribution of the COMT polymorphism was not significantly different in patients and controls (p=0.22). The Val allele had a significant effect on the AAO with a younger AAO in patients with the Val/Val (57.1±13.9, p=0.03) than the Val/Met (57.4±13.9) and the Met/Met genotypes (58.3±13.5). The difference was greater in men (1.9 years between Val/Val and Met/Met, p=0.007) than in women (0.2 years, p=0.81). Thus, the Val158Met COMT polymorphism is not associated with PD in the Caucasian population but acts as a modifier of the AAO in PD with a sexual dimorphism: the Val allele is associated with a younger AAO in men with idiopathic PD.
    • A Validation and Replication Study of the Patient-Generated Measure PSYCHLOPS on an Icelandic Clinical Population

      Héðinsson, Helgi; Kristjánsdóttir, Hafrún; Ólason, Daníel Þór; Sigurðsson, Jón Friðrik; Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Mental Hlth Serv, Landspitali, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland, Univ Iceland, Fac Psychol, Reykjavik, Iceland, Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland, Reykjavik Univ, Sch Sci & Engn, Reykjavik, Iceland (Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, 2013)
      PSYCHLOPS (Psychological Outcome Profiles; Ashworth et al., 2004) is a patient-generated outcome measure developed to be a sensitive indicator of change after therapy. It requires the patient to choose which symptoms or problems are most important to measure over the course of therapy. The present study replicates previous findings for the original version and validates the Icelandic version. The psychometric properties of PSYCHLOPS were investigated by comparing it to an established nomothetic outcome measure, CORE-OM. Icelandic versions of both questionnaires were administered to patients attending cognitive behavior group therapy in a mental-health setting in Iceland. PSYCHLOPS was found to be considerably more sensitive to change over therapy than CORE-OM; convergent and concurrent validity was supported, and internal reliabilities were satisfactory. The acceptability of the instrument was demonstrated by the high completion rate. Overall, these findings suggest that the Icelandic version of PSYCHLOPS has good psychometric properties, and the findings compared very favorably to previous findings. It is concluded that PSYCHLOPS should be considered a desirable instrument for evaluating mental-health outcome and a valuable complement to conventional nomothetic outcome measures.
    • Validation of a plate diagram sheet for estimation of energy and protein intake in hospitalized patients.

      Bjornsdottir, Rannveig; Oskarsdottir, Erna S; Thordardottir, Friða R; Ramel, Alfons; Thorsdottir, Inga; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Univ Iceland, Unit Nutr Res, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland, Landspitali Natl Univ Hosp, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland, Landspitali Natl Univ Hosp, Hosp Food & Nutr Serv, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland, Univ Iceland, Fac Food Sci & Human Nutr, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland (Churchill Livingstone, 2013-10)
      Validation of simple methods for estimating energy and protein intakes in hospital wards are rarely reported in the literature. The aim was to validate a plate diagram sheet for estimation of energy and protein intakes of patients by comparison with weighed food records.
    • Validation of diagnostic imaging based on repeat examinations. An image interpretation model

      Isberg, B; Thorstensen, O; Jorulf, H (Taylor & Francis, 2004)
      PURPOSE: To develop an interpretation model, based on repeatedly acquired images, aimed at improving assessments of technical efficacy and diagnostic accuracy in the detection of small lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A theoretical model is proposed. The studied population consists of subjects that develop focal lesions which increase in size in organs of interest during the study period. The imaging modality produces images that can be re-interpreted with high precision, e.g. conventional radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. At least four repeat examinations are carried out. RESULTS: The interpretation is performed in four or five steps: 1. Independent readers interpret the examinations chronologically without access to previous or subsequent films. 2. Lesions found on images at the last examination are included in the analysis, with interpretation in consensus. 3. By concurrent back-reading in consensus, the lesions are identified on previous images until they are so small that even in retrospect they are undetectable. The earliest examination at which included lesions appear is recorded, and the lesions are verified by their growth (imaging reference standard). Lesion size and other characteristics may be recorded. 4. Records made at step 1 are corrected to those of steps 2 and 3. False positives are recorded. 5. (Optional) Lesion type is confirmed by another diagnostic test. CONCLUSION: Applied on subjects with progressive disease, the proposed image interpretation model may improve assessments of technical efficacy and diagnostic accuracy in the detection of small focal lesions. The model may provide an accurate imaging reference standard as well as repeated detection rates and false-positive rates for tested imaging modalities. However, potential review bias necessitates a strict protocol.
    • Validation of psoriatic arthritis diagnoses in electronic medical records using natural language processing.

      Love, Thorvardur Jon; Cai, Tianxi; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. tlove2@partners.org (W.B. Saunders, 2011-04)
      OBJECTIVES: To test whether data extracted from full text patient visit notes from an electronic medical record would improve the classification of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) compared with an algorithm based on codified data. METHODS: From the >1,350,000 adults in a large academic electronic medical record, all 2318 patients with a billing code for PsA were extracted and 550 were randomly selected for chart review and algorithm training. Using codified data and phrases extracted from narrative data using natural language processing, 31 predictors were extracted and 3 random forest algorithms were trained using coded, narrative, and combined predictors. The receiver operator curve was used to identify the optimal algorithm and a cut-point was chosen to achieve the maximum sensitivity possible at a 90% positive predictive value (PPV). The algorithm was then used to classify the remaining 1768 charts and finally validated in a random sample of 300 cases predicted to have PsA. RESULTS: The PPV of a single PsA code was 57% (95% CI 55%-58%). Using a combination of coded data and natural language processing (NLP), the random forest algorithm reached a PPV of 90% (95% CI 86%-93%) at a sensitivity of 87% (95% CI 83%-91%) in the training data. The PPV was 93% (95% CI 89%-96%) in the validation set. Adding NLP predictors to codified data increased the area under the receiver operator curve (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Using NLP with text notes from electronic medical records improved the performance of the prediction algorithm significantly. Random forests were a useful tool to accurately classify psoriatic arthritis cases to enable epidemiological research.
    • Validation of the Icelandic version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory with Caregiver Distress (NPI-D).

      Davidsdottir, Solveig R; Snaedal, Jon; Karlsdottir, Gudrun; Atladottir, Ida; Hannesdottir, Kristin; Landspitali, National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland (2012-02)
      Background: Dementia is a complex and often debilitating illness, presenting with not only wide-ranging cognitive impairment but also neuropsychiatric challenges, which can have diverse consequences in quality of life for both patient and caregiver. Aim: Studying the validity and reliability of an Icelandic translation of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory with Caregiver Distress (NPI-D). Methods: NPI-D was administered to 38 primary caregivers of dementia patients. The concurrent validity was explored by statistically comparing the NPI-D to the Behavioural Pathology in Alzheimer ’ s Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Regarding caregiver distress, concurrent validity was established between NPI-D, BEHAVE-AD Global Rating and two other caregiver distress scales. Results: Signifi cant correlation was found when total score on the BEHAVE-AD was compared with total score on the NPI-D. All NPI-D subscales achieved signifi cant correlation with the corresponding BEHAVE-AD subscales apart from the ‘ depression/dysphoria subscale ’ . This NPI-D subscale correlated however, signifi cantly with the GDS depression scale, a frequent and well validated measure of depressive symptoms in the elderly population. Cronbach ’ s alpha coeffi cient indicated a high degree of overall internal consistency among the items of the NPI-D. Interestingly, apathy was the most frequent neuropsychiatric disturbance and the only subscale that differed signifi cantly between dementia severity levels. Finally, when studying caregiver distress, the NPI-D showed good concurrent validity with other measures of caregiver burden and distress. Conclusions: The results demonstrate an acceptable level of validity and reliability; therefore the Icelandic translation of the NPI-D is well suited for identifying neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia and associated caregiver burden.
    • Validation of the Icelandic version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory with Caregiver Distress (NPI-D).

      Davidsdottir, Solveig R; Snaedal, Jon; Karlsdottir, Gudrun; Atladottir, Ida; Hannesdottir, Kristin; Landspitali, National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. solvrosa@landspitali.is (2012-02)
      Dementia is a complex and often debilitating illness, presenting with not only wide-ranging cognitive impairment but also neuropsychiatric challenges, which can have diverse consequences in quality of life for both patient and caregiver. Studying the validity and reliability of an Icelandic translation of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory with Caregiver Distress (NPI-D). NPI-D was administered to 38 primary caregivers of dementia patients. The concurrent validity was explored by statistically comparing the NPI-D to the Behavioural Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Regarding caregiver distress, concurrent validity was established between NPI-D, BEHAVE-AD Global Rating and two other caregiver distress scales. Significant correlation was found when total score on the BEHAVE-AD was compared with total score on the NPI-D. All NPI-D subscales achieved significant correlation with the corresponding BEHAVE-AD subscales apart from the 'depression/dysphoria subscale'. This NPI-D subscale correlated however, significantly with the GDS depression scale, a frequent and well validated measure of depressive symptoms in the elderly population. Cronbach's alpha coefficient indicated a high degree of overall internal consistency among the items of the NPI-D. Interestingly, apathy was the most frequent neuropsychiatric disturbance and the only subscale that differed significantly between dementia severity levels. Finally, when studying caregiver distress, the NPI-D showed good concurrent validity with other measures of caregiver burden and distress. The results demonstrate an acceptable level of validity and reliability; therefore the Icelandic translation of the NPI-D is well suited for identifying neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia and associated caregiver burden.
    • Validation of the patients' perceived involvement in care scale among patients with chronic pain.

      Jonsdottir, Thorbjorg; Jonsdottir, Helga; Gunnarsdottir, Sigridur; Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland (Wiley-Blackwell, 2013-09)
      AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Icelandic version of the Modified Patients' Perceived Involvement in Care Scale (M-PICS), I-PICS, an instrument measuring patients' perceptions of pain-related communication with health care providers (HCP). METHODS: The M-PICS was translated into Icelandic according to standard procedures for forward and backward translation. The questionnaire consisted of 20 items measuring four constructs: (i) the degree to which the HCP was perceived as controlling the information-exchange process; (ii) to what extent patients sought or shared information with their HCP; (iii) patients' perceived encouragement to raise questions and discuss their symptoms with their health care provider and (iv) patients' perceived participation in decision-making during the health care visit. The response options for each item ranged from one to five on a 5-point Likert scale, where higher scores indicated higher endorsement. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-nine participants with pain lasting longer than three months (77.2% women; mean age, 49.9 years) completed the questionnaire. To examine the construct validity of the I-PICS, a confirmatory factor analysis was performed, specifying four factors in congruence with the theoretical underpinnings of the original modified scale (M-PICS). Of the 20 items, 19 were retained, and the I-PICS factor structure was for the most part identical to the M-PICS, with the exception of three items that moved between factors and one item that did not fall decisively on one specific factor. Internal consistency (alpha) for the four factors ranged from 0.74 to 0.86 and was 0.86 for the total scale. The mean score on the total I-PICS was 2.67 on a one to five scale, ranging from 1.21 to 4.28 (possible range, 1-5). CONCLUSION: This study supports the four-factor structure of the M-PICS and that the I-PICS is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing patient-HCP communication.
    • Validity and reproducibility of a precoded questionnaire to assess fruit and vegetable intake in European 11- to 12-year-old schoolchildren

      Haraldsdottir, Johanna; Thorsdottir, Inga; de Almeida, Maria Daniel Vaz; Maes, Lea; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Frost Andersen, Lene (Karger, 2005-08-01)
      BACKGROUND/AIMS: Validity and reproducibility were evaluated of a new questionnaire to assess fruit and vegetable intakes in 11- to 12-year-old children. METHODS: The precoded teacher-assisted self-administered questionnaire included two sections: a 24-hour recall part and a food frequency part. Validity was tested in 4 countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Portugal; n = 43-60 per country) using a 1-day weighed food record and 7-day food records as reference methods. Test-retest (7-12 days apart) reproducibility was assessed in 6 countries (Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Portugal, Spain; n = 60-74 per country). RESULTS: Spearman rank correlations for fruit and vegetable intake according to the frequency part and the 7-day food record ranged between r = 0.40-0.53. Between 25-50% were classified into the same quartile and 70-88% into the same or adjacent quartile. Test-retest Spearman rank correlations for the food frequency part were r = 0.47-0.84. Three countries showed no significant difference between fruit intake as assessed with the 24-hour recall part and the 1-day weighed food record, and 2 countries showed no significant difference for vegetables. In the other countries, the 24-hour recall part resulted in substantially higher mean intake levels. CONCLUSION: Validity and reproducibility as to ranking of subjects were regarded to be satisfactory in all countries. Group mean intake, based on the original 24-hour part, was valid for fruit in 3 countries and for vegetables in 2 countries, and this part was subsequently adjusted to avoid overestimation, before the questionnaire was used in the Pro Children study.
    • Validity of a food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of seafood in adults in three European countries

      Birgisdottir, B.E; Kiely, M; Martinez, J.A; Thorsdottir, I; Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali-University Hospital and Department of Human Nutrition and Food Science, University of Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland (Elsevier, 2008-07-01)
      The aim of the study was to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) measuring seafood intake among young adults in Europe. Participants from Iceland, Spain and Ireland (n = 56), aged 20–40, filled out a pre-coded FFQ on seafood. One week after filling out the questionnaire, the participants started a 7–14-day food record (FR). The FFQ was found suitable to rank young adults according to their customary intake of fish and fish oil, but it overestimated the amount consumed. The FFQ could be used as a tool to identify high- and low-fish consumers.
    • Validity of Gotland Male Depression Scale for male depression in a community study: The Sudurnesjamenn study

      Sigurdsson, Bjarni; Palsson, Sigurdur Pall; Aevarsson, Olafur; Olafsdottir, Maria; Johannsson, Magnus; [ 1 ] Univ Iceland, Dept Pharmacol & Toxicol, Fac Med, IS-107 Reykjavik, Iceland [ 2 ] Univ Hosp Iceland, Dept Psychiat, Reykjavik, Iceland   Organization-Enhanced Name(s)      Landspitali National University Hospital [ 3 ] Univ Iceland, Ctr Sport & Hlth Sci, IS-107 Reykjavik, Iceland [ 4 ] Arbaer Hlth Clin, Primary Hlth Care Capital Area, Reykjavik, Iceland (Elsevier Science BV, 2015-03)
      Background: Several studies suggest a "male depressive syndrome", where not only the standard symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) but also symptoms of anxiety, anger, irritability and antisocial behaviour are prominent. Method: In a community study, 534 males were screened for possible depression by the Gotland Male Depression Scale (GMDS) and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). For comparison psychiatrists examined a sub-sample of healthy and depressive males (n=137). The validity of the GMDS was compared both with the BDl and MDD diagnosis according to DSM4V. Results: GMDS was as good as BDl for screening males. ROC-curve analysis gave AUC 0.945 (95% Cl 0.923-0.968) for GMDS when tested against BM. Second, when both scales were tested by ROC-curves against DSM4V, the GMDS had AUC=0.861 (95% Cl 0.800-0.921) and BDl had AUC=0.822 (95% CI 0751-0.893). The estimated prevalence was 14-15%. Limitations: Low participation rare (25%) in the screening phase. Conclusion: GMDS is a valid screening tool for detecting male depression (MDD). Furthermore it is a short self-rating scale, easy to use in daily practice to screen for depression. Our results support recent reports of high prevalence of depressions in the community which supports active screening of males in clinical practice
    • Validity of K-SADS-PL (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children--Present and Lifetime Version) depression diagnoses in an adolescent clinical population.

      Lauth, Bertrand; Arnkelsson, Guðmundur B; Magnusson, Pall; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur A; Ferrari, Pierre; Petursson, Hannes; University of Iceland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Landspítali University Hospital, Dalbraut 12, 105 Reykjavík, Iceland. bertrand@landspitali.is (Informa Healthcare, 2010-12)
      BACKGROUND: Validity studies of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS) interview are modest in number given the international acceptance and extensive use of this instrument in epidemiological and treatment research. The results are somewhat mixed and limited, particularly for adolescent depression. AIMS: The objective of this study was to assess the convergent-divergent validity of the screen criteria and depression diagnoses (major depressive episode) generated with the diagnostic interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). METHODS: Participants were 86 consecutively admitted inpatients aged 12-17 years and their parents. Both convergent and divergent validity of the depression diagnoses were assessed against 11 standard self-report or parent-report rating scales, all of which had been translated, adapted and in most cases validated in Iceland. A total of 25 subscales were included in calculations. RESULTS: Convergent validity was confirmed, with adolescents who screened positive or met criteria for major depressive episode scoring higher than other patients did on scales assessing depressive symptoms. However, divergent validity was only partially supported in this highly comorbid inpatient sample. Severity based on number of diagnostic criteria met had a generally substantial correlation with the rating scales. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a substantial additional amount of convergent-divergent validity data related to this extensively used diagnostic instrument.
    • Validity of retrospective diet history: assessing recall of midlife diet using food frequency questionnaire in later life.

      Eysteinsdottir, T; Gunnarsdottir, I; Thorsdottir, I; Harris, T; Launer, L J; Gudnason, V; Steingrimsdottir, L; Unit for Nutrition Research, University of Iceland and Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. (Springer, 2011-10)
      OBJECTIVES: Limited information exists on the validity of dietary information given by elderly people on their past diet. Here we test the relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire asking older persons about their midlife diet. DESIGN: Retrospective food intake of 56-72-year-old subjects was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire designed for the AGES-Reykjavik Study (AGES-FFQ), an epidemiological study of older individuals. Results were compared with detailed dietary data gathered from the same individuals 18-19 years previously, i.e., in midlife, as part of a national cohort. Spearman correlation and cross-classifications were used to assess the ability of the AGES-FFQ to rank subjects according to their intake. SETTING: Nationwide, Iceland. PARTICIPANTS: Subjects, born 1937-1952 (n=174), who participated in the 1990 Icelandic National Dietary Survey. MEASUREMENTS: Dietary intake, estimated by the AGES-FFQ (2008-2009), and dietary history obtained from the 1990 Icelandic National Dietary Survey as a reference method. RESULTS: The strongest correlation between the AGES-FFQ and the reference method was found for cod liver oil, r=0.53, p<0.001 and r=0.56, p<0.001, for men and women, respectively. For men the corresponding correlation coefficient for milk and dairy products was r=0.43, p<0.001. The correlation coefficients were lower but within a reasonably acceptable range (r=0.26-0.40) for meat, fish and potatoes for both genders, as well as fresh fruits and milk/dairy products for women and whole-wheat bread, oatmeal/muesli and blood/liver-sausage for men. No correlation was found between the AGES-FFQ and the dietary history for rye bread and vegetable consumption. Subjects were categorized into five groups according to level of consumption by the two methods. Cross-classification showed that 16-59% were classified into same group and 43-91% into same or adjacent group, 0-14% were grossly misclassified into opposite groups. CONCLUSION: The AGES-FFQ on midlife diet was found suitable to rank individuals by their intake of several important food groups.
    • Validity of the Arnadóttir OT-ADL Neurobehavioral Evaluation (A-ONE): performance in activities of daily living and neurobehavioral impairments of persons with left and right hemisphere damage

      Gardarsdottir, Sigrun; Kaplan, Susan; Department of Rehabilitation and Neurology, Landspítali, The National University Hospital, Reykjavík, Iceland. sigrgard@landspitali.is (Published For The American Occupational Therapy Association By Ajot Pub. Co, 2002)
      OBJECTIVE: The Arnadóttir OT-ADL Neurobehavioral Evaluation (A-ONE) is a standardized assessment that links performance in activities of daily living (ADL) to neurobehavioral impairments. This study tested the construct validity of the A-ONE. METHOD: From two hospitals in Iceland, 42 patients between 45 and 87 years of age who had sustained either a right or a left cerebrovascular accident (CVA) were evaluated on the Functional Independence Scale (FIS) and Neurobehavioral Specific Impairment Subscale (NSIS) of the A-ONE. The Mann Whitney Utest and chi-square test were used to explore possible differences between the performance of participants with left and right CVA. Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographic data and for items on the FIS and NSIS. The level of significance was set at p < .05. RESULTS: Three of 18 ADL items observed on the FIS and 13 of 46 items on the NSIS discriminated at a statistically significant level between the left and right CVA groups. CONCLUSION: The results provide minimal support for the construct validity of the A-ONE related to differentiating between ADL performance of persons with left and right CVA. However, results regarding the ability of the A-ONE to detect and lateralize impairments agreed with literature regarding lesion sites for the impairments.
    • Validity of Type D personality in Iceland: association with disease severity and risk markers in cardiac patients.

      Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D; Gudnason, Thorarinn; Olason, Daniel T; Thorgilsson, Hordur; Sigtryggsdottir, Unnur; Sijbrands, Eric J; Pedersen, Susanne S; Denollet, Johan; Department of Medical Psychology and Neuropsychology, Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases, Tilburg University, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, The Netherlands. (Springer Verlag, 2012-04)
      Type D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. The Icelandic DS14 had good psychometric properties and its construct validity was confirmed. Prevalence of Type D was 26-29%, and assessment of Type D personality was not confounded by severity of underlying coronary artery disease. Regarding risk markers, Type D patients reported more psychopharmacological medication use and smoking, but frequency of previous mental problems was similar across groups. Type D is a valid personality construct in Iceland, and is associated with health-related risk markers, but not cardiac disease severity.
    • Value of flow cytometry for MRD-based relapse prediction in B-cell precursor ALL in a multicenter setting.

      Modvig, S; Hallböök, H; Madsen, H O; Siitonen, S; Rosthøj, S; Tierens, A; Juvonen, V; Osnes, L T N; Vålerhaugen, H; Hultdin, M; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, Specialist Journals, 2020-12-14)
      PCR of TCR/Ig gene rearrangements is considered the method of choice for minimal residual disease (MRD) quantification in BCP-ALL, but flow cytometry analysis of leukemia-associated immunophenotypes (FCM-MRD) is faster and biologically more informative. FCM-MRD performed in 18 laboratories across seven countries was used for risk stratification of 1487 patients with BCP-ALL enrolled in the NOPHO ALL2008 protocol. When no informative FCM-marker was available, risk stratification was based on real-time quantitative PCR. An informative FCM-marker was found in 96.2% and only two patients (0.14%) had non-informative FCM and non-informative PCR-markers. The overall 5-year event-free survival was 86.1% with a cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR5y) of 9.5%. FCM-MRD levels on days 15 (HzR 4.0, p < 0.0001), 29 (HzR 2.7, p < 0.0001), and 79 (HzR 3.5, p < 0.0001) associated with hazard of relapse adjusted for age, cytogenetics, and WBC. The early (day 15) response associated with CIR5y adjusted for day 29 FCM-MRD, with higher levels in adults (median 2.4 × 10-2 versus 5.2 × 10-3, p < 0.0001). Undetectable FCM- and/or PCR-MRD on day 29 identified patients with a very good outcome (CIR5y = 3.2%). For patients who did not undergo transplantation, day 79 FCM-MRD > 10-4 associated with a CIR5y = 22.1%. In conclusion, FCM-MRD performed in a multicenter setting is a clinically useful method for MRD-based treatment stratification in BCP-ALL.