• Radíumlækningar : ágrip af fyrirlestri fluttum í Læknafélagi Reykjavíkur í janúar 1918

      Gunnlaugur Claessen (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 2005-01-01)
      Radíum er eitt hinna svonefndu radíóaktíf* eða geisl-andi efna; þau gefa frá sér geisla algerlega af sjálfs-dáðum, án allra ytri áhrifa, svo sem ljóss eða rafmagns. Til framleiðslu röntgengeisla þarf eins og kunnugt er háspenntan rafmagnsstraum og ýmislegar vélar; til framleiðslu radíumgeisla þarf ekki annað en radíum, orkan sem framleiðir geislana býr í efninu sjálfu. Tildrögin til þess að radioactiv efni fundust voru rannsóknir eðlisfræðinga á „fosforescens" og „fluorescens". Til eru efni sem bera birtu nokkra stund eftir að þau hafa orðið fyrir ljósáhrifum og er þetta nefnt „fosforescens". Önnur efni geta tekið móti ljósgeislum en gefið þá frá sér aftur í breyttri mynd; t.d. sýnist yfirborðsflötur steinolíu blár þótt olían sé annars litarlaus; steinolían tekur í sig sólgeisla en kastar þeim að nokkru leyti frá sér aftur með bláu ljósi. Þetta nefna menn „fluorescens".Franskureðl-isfræðingur, prófessor Becquerel, rannsakaði þvílík efni og fann að frumefnið úraníum var ekki eingöngu „fosforescerandi" en gaf líka frá sér ósýnilega geisla; Becquerel hélt fyrst að skilyrðið fyrir myndun ósýni-legu geislanna væri undangengin ljósáhrif en af tilviljun fann hann að úraníum sem verið hafði í myrkri gaf líka frá sér þessa nýfundnu geisla. Þar með var sannað að úraníum sjálft er radíóaktíft. Geislarnir voru fyrst nefndir úraníumgeislar en síðar eru þeir venjulega kenndir við Becquerel sem með uppgötvun sinni lagði grundvöllinn undir vísindalega þekking og rannsókn á radíóaktíf efnum. Þessi nýja vísindagrein snertir bæði efna- og eðlisfræði.
    • Rannsókn á áhættuþáttum hjarta- og æðasjúkdóma hjá geðklofasjúklingum á geðsviði Landspítala

      Ólafur Sveinsson; Kristófer Þorleifsson; Thor Aspelund; Halldór Kolbeinsson; Landspitali The National University Hospital, Reykjavík, Iceland (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 2012-07)
      Studies have shown that schizophrenic patients die on average 15-20 years earlier than the normal population, and that increased prevalance of cardiovascular risk factors plays a crucial role Schizophrenic patients are underdiagnosed and undertreated when it comes to diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia among schizophrenic patients in Iceland. An observational study of 106 schizophrenic patients in Iceland during the period 2007-2009. The results were compared to age adjusted population based data. 106 patients participated, 86 men and 20 women. In all 57% were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (p<0.0001) in comparison to 14.1% in the general population. In all 73% were smokers (21% in the general population) p<0.0001 and 23.6% had hypertension of which only 20% were treated with anti-hypertensive medication. The average systolic blood pressure was 134.8 mmHg <0.001. In all 15.1% had a fasting glucose over 7 mmol/l but only 38% were previously diagnosed with diabetes. The average BMI was 29.7 kg/m² p=0.0007, 45.3% were obese (BMI >30 kg/m²). Only 32.1% had normal BMI, and 82.1% had waist circumference over the normal limits. The physical condition of Icelandic schizophrenic patients is poor and their risk for cardiovascular diseases is high. It is necessary to follow their weight, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipids more closely It is imperative to educate and enable the schizophrenic patient to live a healthier life.
    • Rannsókn á áreiðanleika DIS greiningarviðtalsins

      Júlíus K. Björnsson; Eiríkur Líndal; Ása Guðmundsdóttir; Jón G. Stefánsson (Sálfræðingafélag Íslands, 1990)
      Greint er frá rannsókn á áreiðanleika DIS greiningarviðtalsins (Diagnostic Interview Schedule), sem gefið er út af Geðheilbrigðisstofnun Bandaríkjanna. Rannsóknin byggðistáprófun og endurprófun (test-retest), sem framkvæmd var af tveimur þjálfuðum spyrlum, sem hvor um sig lagði fyrir ákveðinn fjölda upphafsviðtala, og endurtók síðan helming sinna eigin viðtala og helming viðtala hins spyrilsins eftir 6 vikur. Rannsóknin gaf af sér 104 viðtöl sem voru fyrsta og önnur fyrirlögn fyrir 52 einstaklinga. Prófaðir vom 20 karlar og 32 konur, öll fædd árið 1931. Gerð er grein fyrir niðurstöðum á þremur þrepum. Áreiðanleiki var reiknaður fyrir sjúkdómsgreiningar, einkenni, og fyrir einstök atriði og kafla viðtalsins. Svokölluð samkvæmnivísitala var notuð til þess að reikna samkvæmni einstakra aíriða á milli fyrirlagnanna tveggja. Niðurstöður rannsóknarinnar benda til, samanborið við aðrar svipaðar rannsóknir, að viðtalið hafi þokkalegan áreiðanleika, sem þó minnkar þegar mismunandi spyrlar leggja það fyrir. Niðurstöðurnar benda einnig til að sumir kaflar viðtalsins hafi minni áreiðanleika enaðrir, en það lækkar heildaráreiðanleika viðtalsins og þar með einnig áreiðanleika og réttmæti ákveðinna sjúkdómsgreininga. Að lokum eru niðurstöðurnar ræddar í ljósi þess að rannsóknin var framkvæmd með úrtaki eðlilegra einstaklinga, þar sem tíðni þeirra einkenna og kvilla sem viðtalið greinir, er mjög lág. Einnig eru ræddar ýmsar spurningar sem þetta vekur varðandi notkun greiningarviðtala og prófa sem gerð eru fyrir klínísk þýði, á meðal heilbrigðs fólks.
    • Rannsókn á dagsbirtu á Íslandi : skynjun ljóss og lita

      Sólveig Ragnarsdóttir (Sálfræðingafélag Íslands, 2004)
      Dagsbirturannsóknir eru mikilvægar vegna þess að birta, bæði dagsbirta og lýsing, hefur gríðarleg áhrif á manninn. Tilgangur þessarar rannsóknar er að greina dagsbirtu á Íslandi með því að beita skynjunarsálfræði og nýjustu niðurstöðum um keilugrunna. Margbreytileiki dagsbirtunnar árið 1998 er sérstaklega til umfjöllunar þar sem lögð er áhersla á dagsbirtuframboð, dagsbirtubreytileika, lisku dagsbirtunnar en einnig árstíðar- og dægursveiflur. Sú aðferðarfræði sem beitt er byggist á því að meta tölulega skynjaðan lýsingarstyrk og skynjaða liti birtunnar. Greiningin er miðuð við skynjunarferla, áðurnefndra keilugrunna, sem ætlað er að lýsa næmi ljósnema augna í manni með eðlilega þrílitasjón. Niðurstöður eru settar fram sem birtuframboð og er metið hversu hátt hlutfall það er af því birtuframboöi sem fæst þegar himinninn er heiður. Einnig er fjallað um breytileika birtuframboðs eftir árstíðum. Niðurstöður litmælinga eru settar fram með liskulíkani Mac-Leods og Boyntons. Einnig í því tilviki eru skynjaðir litir greindir og breytingu þeirra eftir árstíðum og klukkustundum sólarhringsins gerð nokkur skil. Helstu niðurstöður eru þær að dagsbirtuframboð er að meðaltali 60 prósent af því sem það getur orðið samkvæmt kenningum. Það kom í ljós að litahitastig dagsbirtu er óvenjulega hátt sem bendir til þess að eitt helsta einkenni himinisins er bláleitur litur. Ekki komu fram árstíðarsveiflur en dægursveiflur sjást hins vegar. Dægursveiflur sjást hins vegar. Enn fremur, sést að frávik er frá staðalhimni CIE. Ekki er vitað til þess að svipuð rannsókn hafi verið gerð á dagsbirtu hér á landi.
    • Rannsókn á íslenskum föngum I : afdrif og afbrotaferill

      Lárus Helgason (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 1992-08-01)
      A study was made of all 56 prisoners who served a sentence in the two main prisons in Iceland over all months' period, or from the 1st of December 1964 to the 31st of October 1965. Sufficient information was gained on 52 of these prisoners. They were followed up until the 31st of December 1984 but their criminal records until September 1982. Twelve prisoners died during the study period, six from organic diseases and six from various forms of accidents. The prisoners were divided into four offence groups. A little distinction was found when the offence groups were compared with similar offence groups in jailes during the year 1982 even though the number of prisoners were fourfold at that time. Approximately 27% of the prisoners served the first sentence at the beginning of the study. According to criminal records 60% of the prisoners were sentenced for more than 5 years in prison before September 1982. Almost half of the prisoners have criminal records for more than 25 years.
    • Rannsókn á íslenskum föngum II : andlegt og félagslegt ástand

      Lárus Helgason (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 1993-01-01)
      A study was made of all the 56 prisoners who served a sentence in the two main prisons in Iceland over an 11 months' period or from the 1st of December 1964 to the 31st of October 1965. Sufficient information was gained on 42 of these prisoners. They were followed up until the 31st of December 1984 but their criminal records until September 1982. The prisoners differed from the normal population in many ways. 30% of them were single at the end of the study, 32.5% married and 37.5% divorced. Most of the prisoners who were committed for violence were raised by their parents but those committed for theft were raised either by one parent or foster-parents. 42.5% lived alone often in bad condition but only 27.5% lived with wife and children. All except one had serious alcohol problems of whom 57.5% had alcohol dependence syndrome. All except four had either personality disorders or disturbance of conduct. Approximately 70% of the prisoners had been treated in psychiatric hospitals for various reasons mostly alcoholism and personality disorders. At the end of the study at least 40% of the prisoners still continued their criminality. The results point to the fact that the methods used to prevent their criminal behaviour have not been successful. Other methods are discussed.
    • Rannsókn á mál- og minnisgetu flogaveikisjúklinga fyrir gagnaugablaðsaðgerð, Wada próf

      Sigurjón B. Stefánsson; Elías Ólafsson; Ólafur Kjartansson (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 1997-01-01)
      Introduction: Intracarotid sodium amytal injection was introduced as a clinical investigation of epileptic patients by Juhn Wada around 1950. The Wada test causes a brief inhibition of cerebral functions of the anaesthetized hemisphere, thus allowing tests to be performed on the contralateral hemisphere. The test is widely used to lateralize language functions and to assess the risk of postoperative amnesia in epileptic patients evaluated for temporal lobectomy Subjects and methods: Five epileptic patients were investigated. Three patients had hippocampal sclerosis and two had a benign tumour in the amygdala region. The sodium amytal was first injected to the hemisphere with seizure onset. After the development of paralysis of the contralateral side of the body, language and memory functions of the non-anaestetized hemisphere were assessed. The test was then repeated for the other hemisphere. Results: The left hemisphere was dominant for language in three patients. In one patient the right hemisphere was dominant for language and in another patient language was bilaterally represented. In the three patients with hippocampal sclerosis, verbal and nonverbal memory was worse on the side of the lesion. This difference was not as marked for the two patients with lesion in the amygdala region. Total memory score was worse on the side of the lesion in all five patients. Discussion: In both right and left handed individuals language is usually located in the left hemisphere. When epileptic seizures, with onset in the left hemisphere, start early in life, the language function can be transferred to the right hemisphere. This is a likely explanation for the right hemisphere language dominance in one patient. In all patients total memory score was lower for the hemisphere with seizure onset. This is in agreement with the suggestion of a lateralizing value of the Wada test.
    • Rannsókn á tengslum Helicobacter pylori í magaslímhúð við vefjaflokka og magabólgur

      María Sigurjónsdóttir; Alfreð Árnason; Jóhann Heiðar Jóhannsson; Bjarni Þjóðleifsson; Einar Oddsson; Hallgrímur Guðjónsson; Kristrún Ólafsdóttir; Ragnheiður Fossdal; Sif Jónsdóttir; Ólafur Steingrímsson (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 1992-03-01)
      This pilot study was performed at the National University Hospital in Reykjavik in late 1987. Blood samples and biopsies from the gastric mucosa were taken from 47 patients (27 females and 20 males aged 14-75 years, median age 51 year), chosen randomly from a group of 224 patients undergoing endoscopy at the time of the study. Two biopsies were taken from each of the following sites; pylorus, angulus and minor curvature, one for bacterial culture and the other for histopathological examination. Blood was taken for HLA-typing by microlymphocytotoxicity test. Patients who had received antibiotics within two weeks of the endoscopy and patients on anticoagulation therapy or having bleeding diathesis were excluded. Culture, HLA-typing and histological examination were performed without knowledge of results from the other parts of the study. H. pylori was found in 29 patients (61.7%), 17 females and 12 males aged 19-74 years. Median age was 56 years. Bacterial cultures for H. pylori, and histological examination after Warthin-Starry staining, gave identical results in 94.3% of the samples. When the HLA groups of H. pylori positive and negative patients were compared by Fisher exact test no statistical significance was found. The relative risk of patients, with positive H. pylori cultures, to have HLA antigen Aw-19 or belonging to the group where HLA-B-typing was unsuccessful, was statistically significant (P<0.05) when compared to a control group. When H. pylori negative patients were compared to the control group they also had a relative risk of belonging to the same untyped HLA B group (P<0.05). All 47 patients had gastritis according to histology even though only 21 were diagnosed as such at endoscopy. Of 29 patients infected with H. pylori 21 (72.4%) had chronic active gastritis and 8 had chronic gastritis. Only one patient had chronic active gastritis and negative culture for H. pylori. Of 18 patients not infected with H. pylori, 17 had chronic gastritis (94.4%) (Yates' correction P<0.001).
    • Rannsókn á vinnu og vinnuumhverfi sjúkraliða á bráðalegudeildum Landspítala

      Alda Ásgeirsdóttir; Helga Bragadóttir; Landspítali (Félag íslenskra hjúkrunarfræðinga, 2011-10)
      Human resources in nursing are valuable. The need for health care professionals has been growing steadily in recent decades, with increasing demand for the efficient use of human and monetary resources. Therefore it is important to look for ways for better use of the existing manpower in health services. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of practical nurses (PNs) regarding their work and work environment and identify potential ways to provide patients with better and safer nursing. Qualitative research methods were used with three focus groups, with a total of 21 PNs from Landspitali University Hospital acute care inpatient units. Three themes were identified from the data: 1) collaboration and the knowledge utilisation; 2) supportive work environment; 3) extent of work. Underlying topics from participants’ discussions were categorized into: a) collaboration, b) workflow, c) accommodation, d) resources, e) patients. Participants perceived a heavy workload and identified factors which can be improved. To some extent, participants expressed varying work requirements depending on the registered nurse (RN) on duty and some felt that their work did not conform to their education. They also felt a lack of support services, as they spent a lot of their time transporting patients between units, answering the telephone and working in the pantry; all work that in most cases does not require the knowledge of PNs. A significant amount of time was spent looking for equipment for patient care. Participants perceived an increased workload during past years, with patients getting older, sicker, and more often addicted or overweight. They also had to take care of a growing number of victims of violence. Most participants agreed that many things in the work environment were positive and that staff support was considerable. The results indicate that the work and work environment of PNs can be improved in acute care inpatient units with regards to collaboration, supportive work environment and patient load
    • Rannsóknir á bakteríusjúkdómum í laxfiskum

      Bjarnheiður K. Guðmundsdóttir; Sigríður Guðmundsdóttir; Bergljót Magnadóttir; Sigurður Helgason (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 1996-01-01)
      The main bacterial diseases in Icelandic aquaculture are furunculosis, bacterial kidney disease (BKD) and vibriosis. Atypical furunculosis caused by A. salmonicida ssp. achromogenes is an endemic disease causing high mortality in salmonids yearly. Classical furunculosis caused by A. salmonicida ssp. salmonicida was first diagnosed in Iceland in 1995. At Keldur the research focus has been on studying the virulence mechanism of A. salmonicida ssp. achromogenes, the immune response evoked in the fish, and vaccine development. Farmed salmonids have been vaccinated with good results against atypical furunculosis with an autogenous bacterin since 1992. Recent results indicate some crossprotection of the autogenous bacterin of A. salmonicida ssp. achromogenes against classical furunculosis. BKD caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum is another endemic disease in Iceland. An intensive program for brood fish screening has been developed. Fertilized eggs from all infected parents are destroyed which has proved to be highly successful for controlling BKD. ELIS A and PCR methods for rapid diagnosis have been developed. BKD in wild stocks of trout is presently being studied. A variety of Vibrio spp. strains have been isolated from skin lesions of infected salmon. Antibiotics and autogeneous vaccines have been used for disease control with good results. Enteric redmouth disease caused by Yersinia ruckeri has once been diagnosed from farmed salmon in 1990.
    • Rannsóknir á felliprófum, lungnaeinkennum og lungnastarfsemi hjá bændum í tveimur landbúnaðarhéruðum á Íslandi

      Vigfús Magnússon; Tryggvi Ásmundsson; Hrafnhildur Kristjánsdóttir; Agla Egilsdóttir; Eggert Gunnarsson (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 1990-09-15)
      The aim of this study was to find prevalence of respiratory symptoms, do spirometries and measure precipitins against M. faeni, T. vulgaris and A. fumigatus in farmers in two different communities in Iceland. Area A is located at the southern tip of Iceland where the heaviest rainfall occurs (2-4000 mm/year). In spite of this, regular haymaking with outdoor drying of the hay is the most common method. Area B is located in the northwestern part of the country. Here the rainfall is less (1-2000 mm/year) but the summers are very short. Therefore farmers cannot risk a wet summer and make silage from most of their harvest. A farmer living in area A therefore usually has great haydust exposure but one living in area B little. We selected everyone living in these areas 16 years or older who listed livestock farming as their main occupation in the Icelandic National Registry. A questionnaire based on the British Medical Research Council questionnaire for respiratory symptoms, with questions related to haydust exposure added, was used. Spirometry was performed and blood drawn for precipitin tests against M. faeni, T. vulgaris and A. fumigatus. These were done with double gel diffusion technique. In area A, 325 (99,1% of cohort) were studied, but 126 (84,0% of cohort) in area B. In area A, 3,4% made silage from more than half of their harvest compared to 92,9% in area B. In area A, 12,3% had cough for 3 months per year or longer, 11,4% had phlegm for same length of time, 13,6% had dyspnea walking on level ground and 2,8% had wheezing on most days. Comparable figures for area B were 14,3%, 14,3%, 5,6% and 2,4% respectively. Only dyspnea was significantly different in these two areas (p<0,05). In area A, 19,1% experienced cough after working in haydust, 14,2% shortness of breath and 18,5% had experienced fever after such exposure. Comparable figures for area B were 14,3%, 13,5% and 7,9% respectively. Only the febrile episodes were significantly different (p<0,01). In area 72,9% had precipitins against M. faeni compared to 23,0% in area B (p<0,001). As many asymptomatic individuals have this test positive, it is not a valuable diagnotstic tool. No one had precipitins against T. vulgaris, and only 5 against A. fumigatus. Cough of phlegm for 3 months or longer, wheezing on most days or shortness of breath after working in haydust did not correlate with precipitins against M. faeni. However, dyspnea walking on level ground (p<0,05), cough working in haydust (p<0,02) and febrile reactions (p<0,001) did correlate with positive precipitins against M. faeni. Non-smokers were more likely to form precipitins against M. faeni than smokers (p<0,01). In area A, 24,8% had FEV1/FVC% less than 70% compared to 9,5% in area B (p<0,001). The study shows that farmers, who make silage mainly, have less febrile episodes and certain respiratory symptoms. They are also less likely to have obstructive ventilatory defect.
    • Rannsóknir á hassneyslu Reykjavíkuræskunnar

      Þóroddur Bjarnason (Sálfræðingafélag Íslands, 1992)
      Á síðustu tveimur áratugum hefur hassneysla meðal íslenskra ungmenna talsvert verið rannsökuð. Niðurstöður margra helstu rannsókna á þessu sviði hafa enn ekki verið birtar, og ýmsum erfiðleikum er bundið að bera saman niðurstöður annarra rannsókna. Í þessari grein eru rakin aðferðafræðileg vandamál sem tengjast túlkun og samanburði á niðurstöðum fíkniefnarannsókna. Jafnframt eru raktar og útfærðar leiðir við að nota vikmörk hlutfalla við að leggja mat á þróun lágra stika í litlu þýði. Gefið er yfirlit yfir helstu rannsóknir, og þær bornar saman eftir því sem hægt er. Árgangagreining á rannsóknaniðurstöðum um útbreiðslu hass meðal 16, 18 og 20 ára skólanema í Reykjavik leiðir í ljós að hassneysla jókst frá fyrri hluta áttunda áratugarins til fyrri hluta þess níunda. Undir lok níunda áratugarins dró verulega úr neyslunni í öllum aldurshópum, en hún virðist vera að aukast á ný meðal framhaldsskólanema.
    • Rannsóknir á kannabissýnum í rannsóknastofu í lyfjafræði 1969-1988.

      Jakob Kristinsson; Þorkel Jóhannesson; Geirþrúður Sighvatsdóttir (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 1991-01-01)
      During the period 1969-1988 a total of 404 samples of alleged cannabis were subjected to forensic chemical analysis in the Department of Pharmacology, University of Iceland. Three hundred sixty eight samples were positive, i.e. did contain tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids. Of the positive samples 263 were classified as hashish, 67 as marihuana and 18 as cannabis oil. Other positive samples (pipes, cannabis seeds etc.) were 20. The number of positive samples varied considerably during the period (fig. 4). This was especially true for the years 1969¬1978. From 1979 and onwards the number of samples submitted to analysis did correlate reasonably well with the amount of cannabis confiscated by Icelandic police authorities. The mean tetrahydrocannabinol contents of the hashish and the marihuana samples analysed 1977-1988 (table) were similar to those reported in the literature (ref. 8¬11). From 1977 the overall amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol in marihuana and hashish confiscated by the Icelandic police have been on the increase (fig. 5).
    • Rannsóknir á lyfjaeitrunum á Borgarspítala 1987-1988 : þáttur ólöglegra ávana- og fíkniefna í lyfjaeitrunum

      Friðrik Sigurbergsson; Guðmundur Oddsson; Jakob Kristinsson (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 1991-12-08)
      A recent survey on self-poisonings in Reykjavik and the surrounding townships (Oddsson G, Kristinsson J, Hardarson ÞH, Jakobsson F. Læknablaðið 1989; 75: 5-9) has shown that self-poisonings are mainly caused by prescription drugs and alcohol. The role of illicit drugs, i.e. amphetamins, cannabinoids, cocain, morphine/heroine, has not been well known and it was therefore decided to launch another survey where these drugs are specificially looked for. The study period was one year, from November 1987 to November 1988, and all cases suspected of self-poisoning which were admitted to the Reykjavik City Hospital emergency room were included in the survey. Since this is the only emergency room open 24 hours serving Reykjavik and surrounding townships most of the suspected self-poisonings are brought there and receive initial treatment. During the study period 159 cases were admitted suspected of self-poisoning and clinical information and blood samples for drug survey were obtained in 155 patients (97.5%). There were 86 females and 69 males at the age of 14-76 years with a great predominance in the younger age groups. The blood samples were screened for alcohol, bensodiazepines and the aforementioned illicit drugs, at the Department of Pharmacology, University of Iceland. The results of the drug survey revealed that illicit drugs were only found in six cases (4 females and 2 males). The only illicit substances found were amphetamins and cannabinoids. In two cases a combination of cannabinoids and amphetamin was found and other two had taken amphetamin and large amounts of benzodiazepines. None of this particular group had alcohol in the blood. In the remaining 149 cases alcohol was found in 85 and benzodiazepines in 73 cases. Diazepam was the most common bensodiazepine found. The combination of benzodiazepines and alcohol was very common. Codein was found in 13 cases, in most instances along with alcohol or bensodiazepines but there was no evidence of cocain, heroine or morphine poisoning.
    • Rannsóknir á skarðasjúklingum : yfirlitsgrein : fyrsta grein

      Árni Björnsson; Gunnhildur Jóhannsdóttir (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 1996-10-01)
      On the average 8.2 children with different types of facial clefts are born in Iceland every year, which means approximately 1.87 per 1000 births. Until just before the middle of this century most of those children were treated by general surgeons or not at all, and a few were sent abroad. Around 1950 an orthopedic surgeon with some training in plastic surgery joined the staff at Landspitalinn (University Hospital in Reykjavik). Soon practically all children with clefts were referred to him and as the only obstetrical and gynaecological and only pediatric unit in the country were stationed there, Landspitalinn became a center for cleft treatment and has remained so. The senior author (AB) took over the treatment of clefts between 1955 and 1960 and treated about 90% of the children until 1993. The aim of the paper is to give an overview over treatment of clefts in Iceland over this period. Landspitalinn was founded in 1930. All hospital records for patients with clefts were looked into, classified and devided into three groups after the ICD system. A simple record was made for each patient with general informations and special records for those born between 1955-1984, 312 in all, for special scrutiny. In those records all known informations are to be found; kinship, mothers use of drugs in pregnancy, operations, time of operations and surgeon's name were recorded. The operations were devided into main groups and sub groups, auxiliary treatment was recorded as were all complications and diseases related to the clefts. It was also recorded if the cleft was a part of a syndrome or associated with other major congenital deformities. The informations so gained will be a basis for further studies related to evaluation of the treatment and further genetic studies.
    • Rannsóknir í lyfjafaraldsfræði á Íslandi

      Magnús Jóhannsson; Sigríður Haraldsdóttir,; Rannsóknarstofa í lyfja- og eiturefnafræði Háskóla Íslands. Embætti landlæknis. (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 2012-04)
      Pharmacoepidemiology is a rapidly growing discipline that is useful in studies on effects and adverse effects of drugs. During past years and decades databases have been built in Iceland that are becoming powerful tools for this kind of research. The databases are, however only useful for pharmacoepidemiological research if they include personal identification and can be merged. The personal identification should be without time limits because in many cases we are interested in what happened years or decades ago. The prescriptions database was started in 2002 and has dramatically changed the possibilities for pharmacoepidemiological studies in Iceland. The main aim of this review is to give an overview of the existing databases in Iceland and to encourage research in this important field.
    • Rauðkornarof í sermissýnum : könnun á tíðni þess og svöruðum niðurstöðum á kalíum

      Gunnlaug Hjaltadóttir; Ingunn Þorsteinsdóttir (Félag lífeindafræðinga, 2010-07-01)
      Inngangur: In vitro rauðkornarof (hemolysis) í sermissýnum er algengustu mistök í forgreiningarfasa (pre-analytical phase) heildar rannsóknarferlis. Helstu orsakir in vitro rauðkornarofs í sermissýnum eru þættir tengdir blóðsýnatöku, ófullkominni vinnslu og meðhöndlun blóðsýna. Tíðni in vitro rauðkornarofs í sermissýnum hefur reynst hæst í blóðsýnum sem tekin eru í gegnum innanbláæða holleggi (intravenous catheters) á slysa- og bráðadeildum. Vægt in vitro rauðkornarof í sermissýnum hefur ofast lítil eða engin áhrif á niðurstöður lífefnarannsókna í klínískri lífefnafræði. Sermissýni með óeðlilega miklu magni af rauðkornarofi (hemóglóbín ≥2 g/L) eru talin óhæf til mælinga á vel flestum lífefnum í klínískri lífefnafræði. Kalíum niðurstöðu á aldrei gefa út á óhæfu sýni. Markmið: Að kanna tíðni rauðkornarofs í sermissýnum á slysa- og bráðadeild (BrG2) Landspítalans í Fossvogi (LSH-Fv) og athuga hvernig niðurstöðum á kalíum í sermissýnum með rauðkornarof er svarað í FlexLab, tölvu- og upplýsingakerfi klínískrar lífefnafræðideildar. Efni og aðferðir: Tíðni rauðkornarofs var kannað í 540 og 641 blóðsýnum sem flest voru tekin í gegnum innanbláæða holleggi í 14 daga með sex mánaða millibili á BrG2 LSH-Fv (maí og desember 2008). Einnig voru skoðuð 444 blóðsýni, sem voru tekin á hefðbundinn hátt í mars 2009 á göngudeild klínískrar lífefnafræðideildar LSH-Fv. Rauðkornarof var metið sjónrænt í sermissýnum. Niðurstöður kalíums í sermissýnum með rauðkornarof voru athugaðar í FlexLab. Niðurstöður: Fjöldi sermissýna sem innihéldu sjáanlegt rauðkornarof í öllum sermissýnum var í maí, desember og mars í þeirri röð sem getið er 106 (19,6%), 70 (10,9%) og 2 (0,5%). Tölfræðilega marktækur munur var á tíðni rauðkornarofs í sermissýnum sem tekin voru á BrG2 og göngudeild klínískrar lífefnafræðideildar LSH-Fv (p <0,001) Heildarfjöldi sjúklingasýna sem talin voru óhæf til mælinga á kalíum vegna of mikils magns af rauðkornarofi í maí og desember var 82 (n =176) eða 46,6%. Heildarfjöldi sjúklingasýna með svaraðar niðurstöður á kalíum í sermissýnum með mikið rauðkornarof (hemóglóbín ≥2 g/L) í FlexLab var 20 (n = 82) eða 24,4%. Ályktun: Blóðsýnataka gegnum innanbláæða holleggi tengist marktækt meira rauðkornarofi í sermissýnum miðað við hefðbundna blóðsýnatöku. Kanna þarf hvaða lykilþættir það eru í blóðsýnatöku í gegnum innanbláæða holleggi á BrG2 sem valda rauðkornarofi í sermissýnum. Verklagsreglur um meðhöndlun sermissýna með rauðkornarof á klínískri lífefnafræðideild LSH-Fv þurfa að vera skýrari.
    • Rauðkornavaki gegn blóðskorti af völdum langvinnrar liðagigtar

      Björn Guðbjörnsson; Birgegård, Gunnar; Hällgren, Roger; Wide, Leif (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 1992-10-01)
      Eleven patients with chronic inflammatory arthritides, Hb<105g/1 and symptoms from their anemia were treated with recombinant human erythropoietin for 6 weeks, of a dose of 250 IU/kg/week, administered as subcutaneous injections 5 days per week. All patients had active inflammatory disease. Nine patients responded to therapy with an increase in hemoglobin of more than 15 g/1. The mean hemoglobin increased from 93.0 ± 8.0 g/1 before treatment to 115.0 ± 12.0 g/1 after 6 weeks (p<0.001). There was no correlation between the initial serum erythropoietin level and the response. In conclusion, anemia in chronic inflammatory arthritides responds to treatment with subcutaneous injections of recombinant human erythropoietin.
    • Ráðgjöf barnageðlækna

      Helga Hannesdóttir (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 1993-10-01)
      Referral patterns over 9 years period from the Children's Psyshiatric Department at the University Hospital in Iceland were analysed on the basis of 187 referrals. Mean age for girls was 9.0 and for boys 8.5. The diagnosis of special syndroms, developmental disorders and behavioral problems predominated. Seventy eight children were referred for further treatment to child psychiatric service following consultation. Further research in this field is important and the need for improving team work and training in consultative work in child psychiatry is of vital importance in Iceland.
    • Ráðgjöf til foreldra um ómskoðanir í meðgöngu

      María Hreinsdóttir; Obstetrics and Prenatal Diagnosis Unit, Landspitali University Hospital, Hringbraut, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland. mariajh@landspitali.is. (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 2001-05-01)
      In this article the focus is on how midwifes, nurses, doctors and other staff who work in prenatal care give counselling regarding ultrasound excaminations in pregnancy. The main goal is to give professional information regarding the examinations which are available so that parents truly have an informed choice. All decisions regarding the pregnancy must always be with the parents.