• Activity calculator: a method for achieving a balanced lifestyle for people with chronic fatigue

      Pinxsterhuis, Irma; Hulstein – van Gennep, Greke; ten Hove-Moerdijk, Karin; Hellesøy, Kirsti (Iðjuþjálfafélag Íslands, 2019)
    • Adrenergic and metabolic effects of electrical weapons: review and meta-analysis of human data.

      Kunz, S N; Calkins, H G; Adamec, J; Kroll, M W; [ 1 ] Landspitali Univ Hosp, Dept Forens Pathol, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland Show more [ 2 ] Johns Hopkins Med Inst, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA Show more [ 3 ] Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Inst Forens Med, Munich, Germany Show more [ 4 ] Univ Minnesota, Dept Biomed Engn, Minneapolis, MN USA Show more [ 5 ] Calif Polytech Inst, San Luis Obispo, CA USA (Springer, 2018-09-01)
      Electronic control with the CEW (conducted electrical weapon) has gained widespread acceptance as the preferred force option due to its significant injury reduction. However, a CEW application does stress the human body. In the case of the CEW, the human body response is similar to the challenge of physical exercise combined with emotional stress over a very short time interval. There has been concern whether the tension of the skeletal-muscle system together with the emotional stress of being exposed to the effects of a CEW, can lead to severe metabolic dysfunction. A systematic and careful search of the MedLine database was performed to find publications describing pathophysiological effects of CEWs. Additional publications were collected through a manual search of reference lists in retrieved articles. After preliminary exclusions, we carefully reviewed the remaining publications and found 24 papers reporting prospective human clinical research data on adrenergic, ventilation, or metabolic effects. Where there were multiple studies on the same endpoints, we performed meta-analyses. A CEW exposure provides a clinically insignificant increase in heart rate (7.5 BPM) and a drop in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Alpha-amylase goes down but cortisol levels increase-both epinephrine and norepinephrine levels are increased by levels similar to mild exercise. A CEW exposure increases ventilation but does not appear to interfere with gas exchange. Lactate is increased slightly while the pH is decreased slightly with changes equivalent to mild exercise. The lactate and pH changes appear quickly and do not appear to be affected by increasing the exposure duration from 5 to 30 s. Thorough review and meta-analyses show that electrical weapon exposures have mixed and mild adrenergic effects. Ventilation is increased and there are metabolic changes similar to mild exercise.
    • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma transformation in a lateral neck node metastasis - A case report and a review of the literature

      Gunnarsdottir, Agnes B; Briem, Birgir A; Jonasson, Larus; Tryggvason, Geir; [ 1 ] Skanes Univ Sjukhus Lund, Dept Otolaryngol & Head & Neck Canc, Lund, Sweden Show more [ 2 ] Landspitali Univ Hosp, Dept Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, IS-108 Reykjavik, Iceland Show more [ 3 ] Landspitali Univ Hosp, Dept Surg Pathol, Reykjavik, Iceland (Taylor & Francis, 2018)
      Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is thought to be derived from previous existing papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma that dedifferentiates into its anaplastic counterpart. We present a case where this type of dedifferentiation occurs at a metastatic site in a regional lymph node, years after the primary papillary thyroid tumor had metastasized.
    • Anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy is associated with increased in situ squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: A population-based case-control study.

      Adalsteinsson, Jonas A; Muzumdar, Sonal; Waldman, Reid; Hu, Chaoran; Wu, Rong; Ratner, Désirée; Ungar, Jonathan; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Olafsdottir, Gudridur H; Kristjansson, Arni Kjalar; et al. (MOSBY-ELSEVIER, 2020-11-27)
    • Ashwagandha as a cause for liver injury.

      Björnsson, Helgi K; Björnsson, Einar S; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas A; Jonasson, Jon G; Ghabril, Marwan; Hayashi, Paul H; Navarro, Victor; 1Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. 2National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi, USA. 3Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. 4University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. 5Einstein Healthcare Network, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. (Wiley, 2020-05-31)
    • Association between healthy maternal dietary pattern and risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.

      Tryggvadottir, E A; Medek, H; Birgisdottir, B E; Geirsson, R T; Gunnarsdottir, I; [ 1 ] Univ Iceland, Landspitali Natl Univ Hosp, Unit Nutr Res, Eiriksgata 28, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland   Organization-Enhanced Name(s)      Landspitali National University Hospital     University of Iceland [ 2 ] Univ Iceland, Fac Food Sci & Nutr, Eiriksgata 28, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland [ 3 ] Univ Iceland, Landspitali Univ Hosp, Womens Clin, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Eiriksgata 28, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland   Organization-Enhanced Name(s)      Landspitali National University Hospital     University of Iceland (Nature Publishing Group, 2016-02)
      Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with negative health effects for mother and child. The aim was to investigate the association between maternal dietary patterns and GDM.
    • Association of AADAC Deletion and Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in a Large European Cohort.

      Bertelsen, Birgitte; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Riff Jensen, Lars; Melchior, Linea; Mol Debes, Nanette; Groth, Camilla; Skov, Liselotte; Werge, Thomas; Karagiannidis, Iordanis; Tarnok, Zsanett; et al. (Elsevier Science Inc, 2016-03-01)
      Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with a strong genetic influence where copy number variations are suggested to play a role in disease pathogenesis. In a previous small-scale copy number variation study of a GTS cohort (n = 111), recurrent exon-affecting microdeletions of four genes, including the gene encoding arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC), were observed and merited further investigations.
    • Að efla heilbrigði: Næringarráðgjöf sem íhlutun fyrir of þungar konur fyrir og eftir fæðingu

      Helga Gottfreðsdóttir,; Inga Þórsdóttir; Hjúkrunarfræðideild Háskóli Íslands, Heilbrigðisvísindasvið, Háskóli Íslands og Landspítala (Ljósmæðrafélag Íslands, 2012)
      Nýjustu tölur um líkamsþyngd Íslendingasýna að tæplega 59% fólks á aldrinum 18–80ára er yfir kjörþyngd og þar af flokkast 21%með offitu. Rannsóknir benda til að hlutfallþeirra sem eru of feitir fari vaxandi. Konur ábarneignaraldri fara ekki varhluta af þessariþróun en niðurstöður fjölda rannsóknahafa sýnt tengsl offitu við ýmis vandamál ogsjúkdóma tengdum meðgöngu og fæðingu.Í þessari grein er varpað ljósi á þá stöðusem ríkir hér á landi varðandi yfirþyngd ogofþyngd kvenna á meðgöngu og afleiðingarþess en rannsóknir sýna að konur á barnsburðaraldri18–39 ára eru of þungar í 41%tilvika og þar af eru 18% of feitar. Nokkrarerlendar rannsóknir hafa sýnt fram á að meðþví að nota hvatningaviðtöl, næringarráðgjöfog upplýsingar um hreyfingu megi hafa áhrif áþyngdaraukningu kvenna á meðgöngu. Flestaríhlutunarrannsóknir eru þó með litlu úrtaki ogí fáum þeirra er konum fylgt eftir að fæðingulokinni.Mikilvægt er að horfa á offitu semviðfangsefni þar sem fjöldi þátta hefur áhrif.Í öllum tilfellum þarf að huga að mataræðiog næringu konunnar og næringarráðgjöfsem felur í sér hvatningu og kennslu er þvínauðsynleg. Þá þarf að virkja eiginleika ífari hvers einstaklings til að sem hagstæðustútkoma fáist fyrir móður og barn. Í greininnikynnum við hugmyndafræði sem nota má viðþróun íhlutana fyrir konur á meðgöngu sembyggir á því að nota styrkleika hverrar ogeinnar konu samfara því að veita fræðslu ográðgjöf á einstaklingsbundinn hátt .
    • Berkjuskúlk – yfirlit

      Gunnar Guðmundsson; Gunnar Júlíusson; 1 Lungnadeild Landspítala, 2 læknadeild Háskóla Íslands, 3 röntgendeild Karólínska Háskólasjúkrahúsins í Stokkhólmi, Svíþjóð. (Læknafélag Íslands, 2020-07)
      Berkjuskúlk er sjúkdómur þar sem berkjur verða óeðlilega víðar og um er að ræða viðvarandi ástand. Þetta getur verið staðbundið eða dreift um bæði lungu. Sjúkdómurinn kemur á öllum aldri og veldur hósta með uppgangi og endurteknum sýkingum. Tíðni er hærri hjá konum og vex með aldri. Hann einkennist af endurteknum tímabilum þar sem einkenni versna mikið og gerist það oftast vegna sýkinga. Berkjuskúlk getur verið af óþekktum orsökum en getur tengst fjöldamörgum sjúkdómum bæði í lungum og utan þeirra. Sem dæmi um slíka sjúkdóma eru astmi, langvinn lungnateppa og liðagigt auk þess sem brestir í ónæmiskerfi tengjast berkjuskúlki. Þannig er sjúkdómsmynd ólík milli einstaklinga. Greining fæst með tölvusneiðmynd af lungum til viðbótar við klínísk einkenni. Uppvinnsla til að greina aðra sjúkdóma sem hafa tengsl við berkjuskúlk er mikilvæg. Í því sambandi er sögutaka, líkamsskoðun og frekari rannsóknir mikilvægar. Sjúklingar með berkjuskúlk hafa skert heilsutengd lífsgæði og styttar lífslíkur. Meðferð er fólgin í meðferð undirliggjandi sjúkdóma, sýklalyfjum og loftvegahreinsun. Lungnaendurhæfing og reglulegt eftirlit eru einnig mikilvæg. Í þessari grein verður gefið yfirlit um berkjuskúlk sem nýtist mörgum læknum í daglegu starfi því sjúkdómurinn sést víða, bæði hjá heimilislæknum, á sjúkrahúsum og utan sjúkrahúsa.
    • Borrelia and subsequent risk of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies in Sweden.

      Chang, Cindy M; Landgren, Ola; Koshiol, Jill; Björkholm, Magnus; Löve, Thorvardur J; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Landspitali University Hospital (2012-11-01)
    • Bronchiovenous fistula causing bleeding and air embolism: an unusual complication of bronchoscopic tumor resection.

      Sigurdsson, Martin I; Sigurdsson, Hjortur; Hreinsson, Kari; Simonardottir, Liney; Gudbjartsson, Tomas (American Thoracic Society, 2011-03-01)
    • Cardiac and skeletal muscle effects of electrical weapons : A review of human and animal studies.

      Kunz, Sebastian N; Calkins, Hugh; Adamec, Jiri; Kroll, Mark W; [ 1 ] Landspitali Univ Hosp, Dept Forens Pathol, V Baronstig 101, Reykjavik, Iceland Show more [ 2 ] Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Show more [ 3 ] Johns Hopkins Med Inst, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA Show more [ 4 ] Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Inst Forens Med, Munich, Germany Show more [ 5 ] Univ Minnesota, Dept Biomed Engn, Minneapolis, MN USA Show more [ 6 ] Calif Polytech Inst, San Luis Obispo, CA USA (Humana Press, 2018-09-01)
      Conducted Electrical Weapons (CEWs) are being used as the preferred non-lethal force option for police and special forces worldwide. This new technology challenges an exposed opponent similarly to the way they would be challenged by physical exercise combined with emotional stress. While adrenergic and metabolic effects have been meta-analyzed and reviewed, there has been no systematic review of the effects of CEWs on skeletal and cardiac muscle. A systematic and careful search of the MedLine database was performed to find publications describing pathophysiological cardiac and skeletal muscle effects of CEWs. For skeletal muscle effects, we analyzed all publications providing changes in creatine kinase, myoglobin and potassium. For cardiac effects, we analyzed reported troponin changes and arrhythmias related to short dart-to-heart-distances. Conducted electrical weapons satisfy all relevant electrical safety standards and there are, to date, no proven electrocution incidents caused by CEWs. A potential cardiovascular risk has been recognized by some of the experimental animal data. The effects on the heart appear to be limited to instances when there is a short dart-to-heart-distance. The effect on the skeletal muscle system appears to be negligible. A responsible use of a CEW on a healthy adult, within the guidelines proposed by the manufacturer, does not imply a significant health risk for that healthy adult.
    • A Case of Complete Scotoma Following Intake of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplement

      Eliasson, Jon H.; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E.; Gudmundsson, Larus S.; 1 ] Centralsjukhuset, Dept Neurol, Kristianstad, Sweden Show more [ 2 ] Univ Iceland, Fac Food Sci & Nutr, Unit Nutr Res, Reykjavik, Iceland Show more [ 3 ] Landspitali Univ Hosp, Reykjavik, Iceland Show more [ 4 ] Univ Iceland, Fac Pharmaceut Sci, Hagi Hofsvallagata 53, IS-107 Reykjavik, Iceland; Department of Neurology; Centralsjukhuset; Kristianstad Sweden; Unit for Nutrition Research; Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition University of Iceland and Landspitali University Hospital; Reykjavik Iceland; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences; University of Iceland; Reykjavik Iceland (Wiley, 2018-05)
    • COPD: Should Diagnosis Match Physiology?

      Studnicka, Michael; Horner, Andreas; Sator, Lea; Buist, A Sonia; Lamprecht, Bernd; 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria. 2Department of Pulmonology, Kepler University Hospital, Linz, Austria; Faculty of Medicine, Johannes-Kepler-University, Salzburg, Austria; Institute of General Practice, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine, Paracelsus Medical University, Portland, OR. Electronic address: andreas.horner@kepleruniklinikum.at. 3Oregon Health & Science University, Linz, Austria. 4Department of Pulmonology, Kepler University Hospital, Linz, Austria; Faculty of Medicine, Johannes-Kepler-University, Salzburg, Austria. (Elsevier, 2020-02)
    • Correction to: Variability in functional outcome and treatment practices by treatment center after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: analysis of International Cardiac Arrest Registry.

      May, Teresa L; Lary, Christine W; Riker, Richard R; Friberg, Hans; Patel, Nainesh; Søreide, Eldar; McPherson, John A; Undén, Johan; Hand, Robert; Sunde, Kjetil; et al. (Springer, 2019-08)
    • Corrigendum to "Quantitative UPLC-MS/MS assay of urinary 2,8-dihydroxyadenine for diagnosis and management of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency" [J. Chromatogr. B 1036-1037 (2016) 170-177].

      Thorsteinsdottir, Margret; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A; Eiriksson, Finnur F; Runolfsdottir, Hrafnhildur L; Agustsdottir, Inger M Sch; Oddsdottir, Steinunn; Sigurdsson, Baldur B; Hardarson, Hordur K; Kamble, Nilesh R; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th; et al. (Elsevier Science, 2018-08-15)
    • Database Studies on Drug-Induced Liver Injury: The Importance of Causality Assessment.

      Björnsson, Helgi K; Björnsson, Einar S; 1Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. 2Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. (Wolters Kluwer Health, 2021-05)
    • Decreased postural control in adult survivors of childhood cancer treated with chemotherapy.

      Einarsson, Einar-Jón; Patel, Mitesh; Petersen, Hannes; Wiebe, Thomas; Fransson, Per-Anders; Magnusson, Måns; Moëll, Christian; Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. 3Division of Brain Sciences, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. 4Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. 5Department of Paediatrics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. 6Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. (Nature Publishing Group, 2016-11-10)
      The objective of cancer treatment is to secure survival. However, as chemotherapeutic agents can affect the central and peripheral nervous systems, patients must undergo a process of central compensation. We explored the effectiveness of this compensation process by measuring postural behaviour in adult survivors of childhood cancer treated with chemotherapy (CTS). We recruited sixteen adults treated with chemotherapy in childhood for malignant solid (non-CNS) tumours and 25 healthy age-matched controls. Subjects performed posturography with eyes open and closed during quiet and perturbed standing. Repeated balance perturbations through calf vibrations were used to study postural adaptation. Subjects were stratified into two groups (treatment before or from 12 years of age) to determine age at treatment effects. Both quiet (p = 0.040) and perturbed standing (p ≤ 0.009) were significantly poorer in CTS compared to controls, particularly with eyes open and among those treated younger. Moreover, CTS had reduced levels of adaptation compared to controls, both with eyes closed and open. Hence, adults treated with chemotherapy for childhood cancer may suffer late effects of poorer postural control manifested as reduced contribution of vision and as reduced adaptation skills. These findings advocate development of chemotherapeutic agents that cause fewer long-term side effects when used for treating children.
    • Downsheilkenni : eðli þess, uppruni og áhrif á líf og heilsu þeirra sem með það fæðast

      Gíslína Erna Valentínusdóttir; Jóhanna Ólafsdóttir; Guðrún Kristjánsdóttir; Margrét Eyþórsdóttir (Félag íslenskra hjúkrunarfræðinga, 2004-10)
      Í þessari grein verður fjallað um þætti sem tengjast heilsu og velferð barna sem fæðst hafa með downsheilkenni, farið yfir tíðni þess og rætt stuttlega um framtíðarhorfur barnanna og þau atriði sem hjúkrunarfræðingar þurfa að huga að við frekari rannsóknir til að skilja betur hjúkrunarlegt ástand þessara skjólstæðinga.
    • Dramatically improved survival in multiple myeloma patients in the recent decade: results from a Swedish population-based study.

      Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Dickman, Paul W; Landgren, Ola; Blimark, Cecilie; Hultcrantz, Malin; Turesson, Ingemar; Björkholm, Magnus; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; 1 Department of Internal Medicine, Landspitali - The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. 2 Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. 3 Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. 4 Myeloma Service, Division of Hematologic Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY, USA. 5 Department of Internal Medicine, Hematology Section, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. 6 Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. 7 Department of Hematology and Coagulation Disorders, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden. 8 Department of Internal Medicine, Landspitali - The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland sigyngvi@hi.is. (Ferrata Storti Foundation, 2018-09-01)