• T cell receptor gene therapy targeting WT1 prevents acute myeloid leukemia relapse post-transplant.

      Chapuis, Aude G; Egan, Daniel N; Bar, Merav; Schmitt, Thomas M; McAfee, Megan S; Paulson, Kelly G; Voillet, Valentin; Gottardo, Raphael; Ragnarsson, Gunnar B; Bleakley, Marie; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2019-07)
      Relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the leading cause of death in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) entering HCT with poor-risk features1-3. When HCT does produce prolonged relapse-free survival, it commonly reflects graft-versus-leukemia effects mediated by donor T cells reactive with antigens on leukemic cells4. As graft T cells have not been selected for leukemia specificity and frequently recognize proteins expressed by many normal host tissues, graft-versus-leukemia effects are often accompanied by morbidity and mortality from graft-versus-host disease5. Thus, AML relapse risk might be more effectively reduced with T cells expressing receptors (TCRs) that target selected AML antigens6. We therefore isolated a high-affinity Wilms' Tumor Antigen 1-specific TCR (TCRC4) from HLA-A2+ normal donor repertoires, inserted TCRC4 into Epstein-Bar virus-specific donor CD8+ T cells (TTCR-C4) to minimize graft-versus-host disease risk and enhance transferred T cell survival7,8, and infused these cells prophylactically post-HCT into 12 patients ( NCT01640301 ). Relapse-free survival was 100% at a median of 44 months following infusion, while a concurrent comparative group of 88 patients with similar risk AML had 54% relapse-free survival (P = 0.002). TTCR-C4 maintained TCRC4 expression, persisted long-term and were polyfunctional. This strategy appears promising for preventing AML recurrence in individuals at increased risk of post-HCT relapse.
    • Thromboprophylaxis in multiple myeloma: is the evidence there?

      Kristinsson, Sigurdur Yngvi; Landgren, Ola (2012)
    • A total population-based cohort study of female psychiatric inpatients who have served a prison sentence.

      Steingrimsson, Steinn; Sigurdsson, Martin I; Gudmundsdottir, Hafdis; Aspelund, Thor; Magnusson, Andres; Department of Psychiatry, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland; Centre of Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM), Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. (Whurr Publishers Ltd., 2015-03-31)
      Studies of the overlap between severe mental disorder and criminality tend to focus on prison populations rather than psychiatric populations.
    • Towards an Individualized Nutrition Treatment: Role of the Gastrointestinal Microbiome in the Interplay Between Diet and Obesity.

      Adalsteinsdottir, Solveig A; Magnusdottir, Ola K; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; 1 Unit for Nutrition Research, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Landspitali University Hospital, University of Iceland, Eiriksgata 29, 101, Reykjavik, Iceland. 2 Centre for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, DK-2300, Copenhagen, Denmark. 3 Unit for Nutrition Research, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Landspitali University Hospital, University of Iceland, Eiriksgata 29, 101, Reykjavik, Iceland. beb@hi.is. (Springer, 2018-12-01)
      Dietary treatments for obesity have relatively low long-term success. Recent studies have identified the gastrointestinal microbiome as a factor of high relevance. The current knowledge on the interplay between diet, obesity, and the gastrointestinal microbiome and the potential for individualized dietary treatment will be discussed. Studies indicate that each individual digests and metabolizes identical food substances differently depending on their gastrointestinal microbiome composition. Factors related to this crosstalk may improve our understanding of weight homeostasis and treatment of obesity. Long-time dietary intake is the key in the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiome which seems to be an important factor for energy balance, resulting in emerging opportunities for increasingly varied obesity treatment. Compliance to dietary treatment is critical for long-term success as enduring changes in gastrointestinal microbiome seem to slow over time. More research is urgently needed to investigate this missing link in our understanding of obesity.
    • Treatment for high-risk smoldering myeloma.

      Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Holmberg, Erik; Blimark, Cecilie; Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden (Massachusetts Medical Society, 2013-10-31)