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dc.contributor.authorFewtrell, Mary S
dc.contributor.authorMorgan, Jane B
dc.contributor.authorDuggan, Christopher
dc.contributor.authorGunnlaugsson, Geir
dc.contributor.authorHibberd, Patricia L
dc.contributor.authorLucas, Alan
dc.contributor.authorKleinman, Ronald E
dc.date.accessioned2010-11-18T09:57:28Z
dc.date.available2010-11-18T09:57:28Z
dc.date.issued2007-02-01
dc.date.submitted2010-11-18
dc.identifier.citationAm. J. Clin. Nutr. 2007, 85(2):635S-638Sen
dc.identifier.issn0002-9165
dc.identifier.pmid17284769
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2336/115785
dc.descriptionTo access publisher full text version of this article. Please click on the hyperlink in Additional Links fielden
dc.description.abstractBefore 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that infants be exclusively breastfed for 4-6 mo with the introduction of complementary foods (any fluid or food other than breast milk) thereafter. In 2001, after a systematic review and expert consultation, this advice was changed, and exclusive breastfeeding is now recommended for the first 6 mo of life. The systematic review commissioned by the WHO compared infant and maternal outcomes for exclusive breastfeeding for 3-4 mo versus 6 mo. That review concluded that infants exclusively breastfed for 6 mo experienced less morbidity from gastrointestinal infection and showed no deficits in growth but that large randomized trials are required to rule out small adverse effects on growth and the development of iron deficiency in susceptible infants. Others have raised concerns that the evidence is insufficient to confidently recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 6 mo for infants in developed countries, that breast milk may not meet the full energy requirements of the average infant at 6 mo of age, and that estimates of the proportion of exclusively breastfed infants at risk of specific nutritional deficiencies are not available. Additionally, virtually no data are available to form evidence-based recommendations for the introduction of solids in formula-fed infants. Given increasing evidence that early nutrition and growth have effects on both short- and longer-term health, it is vital that this issue be investigated in high-quality randomized studies. Meanwhile, the consequences of the WHO recommendation should be monitored in different settings to assess compliance and record and act on adverse events. The policy should then be reviewed in the context of new data to formulate evidence-based recommendations.
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherAmerican Society of Clinical Nutritionen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.ajcn.org/content/85/2/635S.abstracten
dc.subject.meshBreast Feedingen
dc.subject.meshHealth Policyen
dc.subject.meshHumansen
dc.subject.meshInfanten
dc.subject.meshInfant Formulaen
dc.subject.meshInfant, Newbornen
dc.subject.meshTime Factorsen
dc.titleOptimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: what is the evidence to support current recommendations?en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentMRC Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom.en
dc.identifier.journalAmerican journal of clinical nutritionen
html.description.abstractBefore 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that infants be exclusively breastfed for 4-6 mo with the introduction of complementary foods (any fluid or food other than breast milk) thereafter. In 2001, after a systematic review and expert consultation, this advice was changed, and exclusive breastfeeding is now recommended for the first 6 mo of life. The systematic review commissioned by the WHO compared infant and maternal outcomes for exclusive breastfeeding for 3-4 mo versus 6 mo. That review concluded that infants exclusively breastfed for 6 mo experienced less morbidity from gastrointestinal infection and showed no deficits in growth but that large randomized trials are required to rule out small adverse effects on growth and the development of iron deficiency in susceptible infants. Others have raised concerns that the evidence is insufficient to confidently recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 6 mo for infants in developed countries, that breast milk may not meet the full energy requirements of the average infant at 6 mo of age, and that estimates of the proportion of exclusively breastfed infants at risk of specific nutritional deficiencies are not available. Additionally, virtually no data are available to form evidence-based recommendations for the introduction of solids in formula-fed infants. Given increasing evidence that early nutrition and growth have effects on both short- and longer-term health, it is vital that this issue be investigated in high-quality randomized studies. Meanwhile, the consequences of the WHO recommendation should be monitored in different settings to assess compliance and record and act on adverse events. The policy should then be reviewed in the context of new data to formulate evidence-based recommendations.


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