Treatment stratification based on initial in vivo response in acute myeloid leukaemia in children without Down's syndrome: results of NOPHO-AML trials.
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AuthorsLie, Sverre O
MetadataShow full item record
CitationBr J Haematol. 2003, 122(2):217-25
AbstractThree consecutive protocols for childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) have been used in the Nordic countries since 1984: the Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO)-AML84 was of moderate intensity, NOPHO-AML88 of high intensity with upfront loading and aggressive consolidation. NOPHO-AML93 utilized the same treatment blocks as NOPHO-AML88, but after the first block those children with a hypoplastic non-leukaemic bone marrow were allowed to recover from aplasia. Poor responders received intensified induction therapy. Between January 1993 and December 2000, 219 children without Down's syndrome were entered on NOPHO-AML93. Compared with NOPHO-AML88, the event-free survival (EFS) at 7 years increased from 41% to 49% (P = 0.06) and 7-year overall survival increased from 47% to 64% (P < 0.01). Toxic death during induction was reduced from 10% to 3%. Survival was similar in patients receiving stem cell transplantation or chemotherapy only in first remission. The major prognostic factors in NOPHO-AML93 were response to therapy and cytogenetics. A total of 67% of patients achieved remission after the first induction course and showed an EFS of 56% compared with 35% in those not in remission (P < 0.01). Cytogenetic results were obtained in 95% of patients. Patients with t(9;11) (p22;q23) (n = 16) experienced a significantly better EFS (86%) than other cytogenetic groups. The overall outcome was improved by employing the previous toxic protocol with different timings, and through individualizing therapy according to the initial response of the patient.
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