Obesity and the metabolic syndrome: role of different dietary macronutrient distribution patterns and specific nutritional components on weight loss and maintenance.
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CitationNutr. Rev. 2010, 68(4):214-31
AbstractWeight loss and subsequent body weight maintenance are difficult for obese individuals despite the wide variety of dietary regimens and approaches. A substantial body of scientific evidence has shown that by simply varying the macronutrient distribution and composition of dietary factors, weight losses of varying amounts, longer-term body weight maintenance periods, better appetite regulation, and changes in features of the metabolic syndrome can be achieved. At present, renewed efforts are underway to increase the protein content of weight-loss diets, simultaneously restrict fat consumption to no more than 30%, favor polyunsaturated fat, have carbohydrates account for between 40 and 50% of total energy intake, and promote the consumption of low-glycemic foods. The present article reviews the scientific evidence for the effects of several dietary manipulations and sustainable strategies for weight loss and body weight stability as well as for treating specific features of the metabolic syndrome.
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Dietary omega-3 fatty acids enhance the B1 but not the B2 cell immune response in mice with antigen-induced peritonitis.Tomasdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsdottir, Sigrun; Vikingsson, Arnor; Hardardottir, Ingibjorg; Freysdottir, Jona; Landspitali, Univ Hosp Iceland, Ctr Rheumatol Res, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland Landspitali, Univ Hosp Iceland, Dept Immunol, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Biomed Ctr, Dept Biochem & Mol Biol, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland (Elsevier Science, 2014-02)The effects of omega-3 fatty acids on the adaptive immune response have mainly been analysed in vitro with varying results. How omega-3 fatty acids affect the adaptive immune response in vivo is largely unknown. This study examined the effects of dietary fish oil on the adaptive immune response in antigen-induced inflammation in mice, focusing on its effects on B cells and B cell subsets. Mice were fed a control diet with or without 2.8% fish oil, immunized twice with methylated BSA (mBSA) and peritonitis induced by intraperitoneal injection of mBSA. Serum, spleen and peritoneal exudate were collected prior to and at different time points after induction of peritonitis. Serum levels of mBSA-specific antibodies were determined by ELISA and the number of peritoneal and splenic lymphocytes by flow cytometry. The levels of germinal center B cells and IgM(+), IgG(+) and CD138(+) cells in spleen were evaluated by immunoenzyme staining. Mice fed the fish oil diet had more peritoneal B1 cells, more IgM(+) cells in spleen and higher levels of serum mBSA-specific IgM antibodies compared with that in mice fed the control diet. However, dietary fish oil did not affect the number of peritoneal B2 cells, splenic IgG(+) or CD138(+) cells or serum levels of mBSA-specific IgG antibodies in mice with mBSA-induced peritonitis. These results indicate that dietary fish oil can enhance the adaptive immune response, specifically the B1 cell response, which may lead to better protection against secondary infection as well as improvement in reaching homeostasis following antigenic challenge.
Dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and added sugar as determinants of excessive gestational weight gain: a prospective cohort study.Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Astrup, Arne; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Centre for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark. 2Centre for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. 3Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. 4Centre for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. (BMJ, 2015)To examine the relation between the protein:carbohydrate (P/C) ratio and added sugar intake in pregnancy and gestational weight gain (GWG).
Maternal dietary intakes of refined grains during pregnancy and growth through the first 7 y of life among children born to women with gestational diabetes.Zhu, Yeyi; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Mendola, Pauline; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Yeung, Edwina H; Granström, Charlotta; Bjerregaard, Anne A; Wu, Jing; Rawal, Shristi; Chavarro, Jorge E; et al. (American Society of Nutrition -ASN, 2017-07)Background: Refined grains, a major source of dietary carbohydrates, have been related to impaired glucose homeostasis and obesity. Emerging animal data suggest that in utero exposure to dietary refined carbohydrates may predispose offspring to an obese phenotype, indicating a potential role for nutritional programming in the early origins of obesity, but intergenerational human data are lacking.Objective: We prospectively investigated refined-grain intake during pregnancy in association with offspring growth through age 7 y among high-risk children born to women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).Design: The analysis included 918 mother-singleton child dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Offspring body mass index z scores (BMIZs) were calculated by using weight and length or height measured at birth, 5 and 12 mo, and 7 y. Overweight or obesity was defined by WHO cutoffs. Linear and Poisson regressions were used, with adjustment for maternal demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors.Results: Refined-grain intake during pregnancy was positively associated with offspring BMIZ (adjusted β per serving increase per day: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15) and risk of overweight or obesity at age 7 y [adjusted RR (aRR) comparing the highest with the lowest quartile: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.98; P-trend = 0.032]. The association appeared to be more pronounced among children who were breastfed <6 mo. The substitution of 1 serving refined grains/d with an equal serving of whole grains during pregnancy was related to a 10% reduced risk of offspring overweight or obesity at 7 y of age (aRR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.98). No associations were observed between refined-grain intake and infant growth.Conclusions: Higher maternal refined-grain intake during pregnancy was significantly related to a greater BMIZ and a higher risk of overweight or obesity at age 7 y among children born after pregnancies complicated by GDM. The findings highlight pregnancy as a potential window of susceptibility associated with offspring growth and obesity risk among this high-risk population. Data with longer follow-up are warranted.