Obesity and the metabolic syndrome: role of different dietary macronutrient distribution patterns and specific nutritional components on weight loss and maintenance.
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CitationNutr. Rev. 2010, 68(4):214-31
AbstractWeight loss and subsequent body weight maintenance are difficult for obese individuals despite the wide variety of dietary regimens and approaches. A substantial body of scientific evidence has shown that by simply varying the macronutrient distribution and composition of dietary factors, weight losses of varying amounts, longer-term body weight maintenance periods, better appetite regulation, and changes in features of the metabolic syndrome can be achieved. At present, renewed efforts are underway to increase the protein content of weight-loss diets, simultaneously restrict fat consumption to no more than 30%, favor polyunsaturated fat, have carbohydrates account for between 40 and 50% of total energy intake, and promote the consumption of low-glycemic foods. The present article reviews the scientific evidence for the effects of several dietary manipulations and sustainable strategies for weight loss and body weight stability as well as for treating specific features of the metabolic syndrome.
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Can a Simple Dietary Screening in Early Pregnancy Identify Dietary Habits Associated with Gestational Diabetes?Hrolfsdottir, Laufey; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Hreidarsdottir, Ingibjorg Th; Smarason, Alexander Kr; Hardardottir, Hildur; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; 1 Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital and Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Eiríksgata 29 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. firstname.lastname@example.org. 2 Institution of Health Science Research, University of Akureyri and Akureyri Hospital, Eyrarlandsvegi, 600 Akureyri, Iceland. email@example.com. 3 Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital and Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Eiríksgata 29 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. 4 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Landspitali University Hospital, Hringbraut, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland. 5 Institution of Health Science Research, University of Akureyri and Akureyri Hospital, Eyrarlandsvegi, 600 Akureyri, Iceland. 6 Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Vatnsmýrarvegi 16, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland. 7 Centre for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, 2300 Copenhagen, Denmark. (MDPI Publishing, 2019-08-11)Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is predominantly a lifestyle disease, with diet being an important modifiable risk factor. A major obstacle for the prevention in clinical practice is the complexity of assessing diet. In a cohort of 1651 Icelandic women, this study examined whether a short 40-item dietary screening questionnaire administered in the 1st trimester could identify dietary habits associated with GDM. The dietary variables were aggregated into predefined binary factors reflecting inadequate or optimal intake and stepwise backward elimination was used to identify a reduced set of factors that best predicted GDM. Those binary factors were then aggregated into a risk score (range: 0-7), that was mostly characterised by frequent consumption of soft drinks, sweets, cookies, ice creams and processed meat. The women with poor dietary habits (score ≥ 5, n = 302), had a higher risk of GDM (RR = 1.38; 95%CI = 3, 85) compared with women with a more optimal diet (score ≤ 2, n = 407). In parallel, a pilot (n = 100) intervention was conducted among overweight and obese women examining the effect of internet-based personalized feedback on diet quality. Simple feedback was given in accordance with the answers provided in the screening questionnaire in 1st trimester. At the endpoint, the improvements in diet quality were observed by, as an example, soft drink consumption being reduced by ~1 L/week on average in the intervention group compared to the controls. Our results suggest that a simple dietary screening tool administered in the 1st trimester could identify dietary habits associated with GMD. This tool should be easy to use in a clinical setting, and with simple individualized feedback, improvements in diet may be achieved.
Dietary omega-3 fatty acids enhance the B1 but not the B2 cell immune response in mice with antigen-induced peritonitis.Tomasdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsdottir, Sigrun; Vikingsson, Arnor; Hardardottir, Ingibjorg; Freysdottir, Jona; Landspitali, Univ Hosp Iceland, Ctr Rheumatol Res, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland Landspitali, Univ Hosp Iceland, Dept Immunol, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Biomed Ctr, Dept Biochem & Mol Biol, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland (Elsevier Science, 2014-02)The effects of omega-3 fatty acids on the adaptive immune response have mainly been analysed in vitro with varying results. How omega-3 fatty acids affect the adaptive immune response in vivo is largely unknown. This study examined the effects of dietary fish oil on the adaptive immune response in antigen-induced inflammation in mice, focusing on its effects on B cells and B cell subsets. Mice were fed a control diet with or without 2.8% fish oil, immunized twice with methylated BSA (mBSA) and peritonitis induced by intraperitoneal injection of mBSA. Serum, spleen and peritoneal exudate were collected prior to and at different time points after induction of peritonitis. Serum levels of mBSA-specific antibodies were determined by ELISA and the number of peritoneal and splenic lymphocytes by flow cytometry. The levels of germinal center B cells and IgM(+), IgG(+) and CD138(+) cells in spleen were evaluated by immunoenzyme staining. Mice fed the fish oil diet had more peritoneal B1 cells, more IgM(+) cells in spleen and higher levels of serum mBSA-specific IgM antibodies compared with that in mice fed the control diet. However, dietary fish oil did not affect the number of peritoneal B2 cells, splenic IgG(+) or CD138(+) cells or serum levels of mBSA-specific IgG antibodies in mice with mBSA-induced peritonitis. These results indicate that dietary fish oil can enhance the adaptive immune response, specifically the B1 cell response, which may lead to better protection against secondary infection as well as improvement in reaching homeostasis following antigenic challenge.
Dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and added sugar as determinants of excessive gestational weight gain: a prospective cohort study.Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Astrup, Arne; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Centre for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark. 2Centre for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. 3Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. 4Centre for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. (BMJ, 2015)To examine the relation between the protein:carbohydrate (P/C) ratio and added sugar intake in pregnancy and gestational weight gain (GWG).