Validation of the Icelandic version of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory with Caregiver Distress (NPI-D).
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CitationNord. J. Psychiatry 2012, 66(1):26-32
AbstractBackground: Dementia is a complex and often debilitating illness, presenting with not only wide-ranging cognitive impairment but also neuropsychiatric challenges, which can have diverse consequences in quality of life for both patient and caregiver. Aim: Studying the validity and reliability of an Icelandic translation of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory with Caregiver Distress (NPI-D). Methods: NPI-D was administered to 38 primary caregivers of dementia patients. The concurrent validity was explored by statistically comparing the NPI-D to the Behavioural Pathology in Alzheimer ’ s Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Regarding caregiver distress, concurrent validity was established between NPI-D, BEHAVE-AD Global Rating and two other caregiver distress scales. Results: Signiﬁ cant correlation was found when total score on the BEHAVE-AD was compared with total score on the NPI-D. All NPI-D subscales achieved signiﬁ cant correlation with the corresponding BEHAVE-AD subscales apart from the ‘ depression/dysphoria subscale ’ . This NPI-D subscale correlated however, signiﬁ cantly with the GDS depression scale, a frequent and well validated measure of depressive symptoms in the elderly population. Cronbach ’ s alpha coefﬁ cient indicated a high degree of overall internal consistency among the items of the NPI-D. Interestingly, apathy was the most frequent neuropsychiatric disturbance and the only subscale that differed signiﬁ cantly between dementia severity levels. Finally, when studying caregiver distress, the NPI-D showed good concurrent validity with other measures of caregiver burden and distress. Conclusions: The results demonstrate an acceptable level of validity and reliability; therefore the Icelandic translation of the NPI-D is well suited for identifying neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia and associated caregiver burden.
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