The adjuvant LT-K63 can restore delayed maturation of follicular dendritic cells and poor persistence of both protein- and polysaccharide-specific antibody-secreting cells in neonatal mice.
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AuthorsBjarnarson, Stefania P
Adarna, Brenda C
Del Giudice, Giuseppe
MetadataShow full item record
CitationJ. Immunol. 2012, 189(3):1265-73
AbstractAb responses in early life are low and short-lived; therefore, induction of protective immunity requires repeated vaccinations. One of the major limitations in early-life immunity is delayed maturation of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which play a central role in mediating the germinal center (GC) reaction leading to production of Ab-secreting cells (AbSCs). We assessed whether a nontoxic mutant of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-K63) and CpG1826 as model adjuvants could accelerate FDC maturation and immune response in neonatal mice, using a pneumococcal polysaccharide of serotype 1 conjugated to tetanus toxoid (Pnc1-TT) as a model vaccine. In neonatal NMRI mice, a single dose of Pnc1-TT coadministered with LT-K63 enhanced Pnc1-TT-induced GC reaction. In contrast, CpG1826 had no effect. Accordingly, LT-K63, but not CpG1826, accelerated the maturation of FDC networks, detected by FDC-M2(+) staining, characteristic for adult-like FDCs. This coincided with migration of MOMA-1(+) macrophages into the GCs that can enhance GC reaction and B cell activation. The FDC-M2(+) FDC networks colocalized with enhanced expression of TNF-α, which is critical for the maintenance of mature FDCs and is poorly expressed in neonates. The accelerated maturation of FDC networks correlated with increased frequency and prolonged persistence of polysaccharide- and protein-specific IgG(+) AbSCs in spleen and bone marrow. Our data show for the first time, to our knowledge, that an adjuvant (LT-K63) can overcome delayed maturation of FDCs in neonates, enhance the GC reaction, and prolong the persistence of vaccine-specific AbSCs in the BM. These properties are attractive for parenteral vaccination in early life.
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RightsArchived with thanks to Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
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