Unchanged incidence of diabetic nephropathy in Type 1 diabetes: a nation-wide study in Iceland
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CitationDiabet. Med. 2005, 22(2):182-7
AbstractAIMS: Diabetic nephropathy is an uncommon cause of end-stage renal disease in Iceland in contrast to most industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of diabetic nephropathy in Iceland. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes in Iceland before 1992 were studied retrospectively. Patients diagnosed before age 30, who were insulin dependent from the onset, were defined as having Type 1 diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as persistent proteinuria measured with a dipstick test (Albustix) on three consecutive clinic visits at least 2 months apart. Patients were followed to the end of year 1998, to their last recorded outpatient visit, or until death. The cumulative incidence of diabetic nephropathy was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method and presented according to the duration of diabetes divided into 5-year intervals. RESULTS: A total of 343 patients with Type 1 diabetes were identified. The mean follow-up period was 20.2 +/- 11.4 (mean +/- sd) years. Only 9.3% of patients were lost to follow-up. Sixty-five patients developed diabetic nephropathy. The cumulative incidence was 22.6% at 20 years and levelled off at 40.3% after approximately 35 years of diabetes duration. No significant changes in cumulative incidence were observed over time. Mean glycated haemoglobin was 8.4% in patients with proteinuria and 7.8% in a group of patients without proteinuria that was matched for age, gender and duration of diabetes (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative incidence of diabetic nephropathy in Iceland is comparable with previously reported cumulative incidence rates and has remained unchanged. Glycaemic control was significantly better in patients without proteinuria.
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