Differential expression of chemokine receptors on peripheral blood B cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus
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CitationArthritis Res. Ther. 2005, 7(5):R1001-13
AbstractChemokines and their receptors are essential in the recruitment and positioning of lymphocytes. To address the question of B cell migration into the inflamed synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), peripheral blood naive B cells, memory B cells and plasma cells were analyzed for cell surface expression of the chemokine receptors CXCR3, CXCR4, CXCR5, CCR5, CCR6, CCR7 and CCR9. For comparison, B cells in the peripheral blood of patients with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or with the degenerative disease osteoarthritis (OA) were analyzed. Expression levels of chemokine receptors were measured by flow cytometry and were compared between the different patient groups and healthy individuals. The analysis of chemokine receptor expression showed that the majority of peripheral blood B cells is positive for CXCR3, CXCR4, CXCR5, CCR6 and CCR7. Whereas a small fraction of B cells were positive for CCR5, practically no expression of CCR9 was found. In comparison with healthy individuals, in patients with RA a significant fraction of B cells showed a decreased expression of CXCR5 and CCR6 and increased levels of CXCR3. The downregulation of CXCR5 correlated with an upregulation of CXCR3. In patients with SLE, significant changes in CXCR5 expression were seen. The functionality of the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR4 was demonstrated by transmigration assays with the chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL12, respectively. Our results suggest that chronic inflammation leads to modulation of chemokine receptor expression on peripheral blood B cells. However, differences between patients with RA and patients with SLE point toward a disease-specific regulation of receptor expression. These differences may influence the migrational behavior of B cells.
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Circulating interferon-γ-inducible Cys-X-Cys chemokine receptor 3 ligands are elevated in humans with aortic aneurysms and Cys-X-Cys chemokine receptor 3 is necessary for aneurysm formation in mice.Gallo, Amy; Saad, Ahmad; Ali, Rahmat; Dardik, Alan; Tellides, George; Geirsson, Arnar; Department of Surgery, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA. (2012-03)Inflammation is associated with the formation of aortic aneurysm. This study investigates the role of inducible Cys-X-Cys chemokine receptor 3 and its ligands in the pathogenesis of arterial aneurysms. Plasma samples from patients with or without a diagnosis of thoracic aortic aneurysms were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the T-helper 1 cytokine interferon-γ and the interferon-γ-inducible chemokine receptor 3 ligands: interferon-inducible protein-10, interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant, and monokine induced by interferon gamma. Patient charts were reviewed for demographics, initial aortic diameter, and growth rates. Aneurysm diameter and growth rates were correlated with plasma cytokine and chemokine levels using linear regression analysis. We used an animal model of aneurysm formation, where calcium chloride is applied topically to the carotid arteries of wild-type and Cys-X-Cys chemokine receptor 3(-/-) mice. After 10 weeks, the arteries were harvested and analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms had significant elevations in circulating interferon-γ, interferon-inducible protein-10, interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant, and monokine induced by interferon gamma compared with referent patients (P < .001). Cytokine and chemokine plasma levels did not correlate with aneurysm size or growth rates. Cys-X-Cys chemokine receptor 3(-/-) mice were protected from aneurysm formation and showed decreased vascular infiltration by CD45(+) leukocytes. Elevated plasma levels of interferon-γ and Cys-X-Cys chemokine receptor 3-binding chemokines are present in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms. The Cys-X-Cys chemokine receptor 3 receptor is necessary for vascular inflammation and the formation of arterial aneurysms in mice.
Expression of cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in oral ulcers of patients with Behcet's disease (BD) and recurrent aphthous stomatitis is Th1-associated, although Th2-association is also observed in patients with BD.Dalghous, A M; Freysdottir, J; Fortune, F; Division of Dental Surgery, Leeds Dental Institute, Leeds, UK. (Informa Healthcare, 2006-12)OBJECTIVE: Although the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease (BD) is unknown, immune dysfunction appears to be involved. To improve understanding of the role of T cells and cytokines in BD, the current study analysed the localization and extent of expression of T cell subsets, cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in oral ulcers from BD patients and for comparison in oral ulcers from patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), as well as in healthy oral mucosa. METHODS: Biopsies from oral ulcers of 25 BD patients and 19 RAS patients and oral mucosa from six healthy volunteers were immunoperoxidase stained. RESULTS: Both CD4- and CD8-positive T cells were present in the oral ulcers of BD and RAS patients. The T helper (Th)1 cytokines interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha and the Th1-associated chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3 were increased in both patient groups as compared to normal controls, indicating the involvement of a Th1 immune response in the immunopathology of both BD and RAS. However, the Th2 cytokine IL-4 was only observed in oral ulcers of BD patients but not in RAS patients. CONCLUSION: This is the first study that shows the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as Th1-associated chemokine receptors, in the oral ulcers of BD patients, as well as RAS patients, at a protein level. However, the expression of the Th2 cytokine IL-4 within the oral lesions of only BD patients is suggestive of a more complex antigenic stimuli in BD patients compared with RAS patients.
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