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dc.contributor.authorCarlsen, Hanne Krage
dc.contributor.authorZoëga, Helga
dc.contributor.authorValdimarsdóttir, Unnur
dc.contributor.authorGíslason, Thórarinn
dc.contributor.authorHrafnkelsson, Birgir
dc.date.accessioned2013-08-12T15:46:19Z
dc.date.available2013-08-12T15:46:19Z
dc.date.issued2012-02
dc.date.submitted2013-08-12
dc.identifier.citationEnviron. Res. 2012, 113:33-9en_GB
dc.identifier.issn1096-0953
dc.identifier.pmid22264878
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.envres.2011.10.010
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2336/297941
dc.description.abstractAir pollutants in Iceland's capital area include hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions from geothermal power plants, particle pollution (PM10) and traffic-related pollutants. Respiratory health effects of exposure to PM and traffic pollutants are well documented, yet this is one of the first studies to investigate short-term health effects of ambient H2S exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between daily ambient levels of H2S, PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), and the use of drugs for obstructive pulmonary diseases in adults in Iceland's capital area. The study period was 8 March 2006 to 31 December 2009. We used log-linear Poisson generalized additive regression models with cubic splines to estimate relative risks of individually dispensed drugs by air pollution levels. A three-day moving average of the exposure variables gave the best fit to the data. Final models included significant covariates adjusting for climate and influenza epidemics, as well as time-dependent variables. The three-day moving average of H2S and PM10 levels were positively associated with the number of individuals who were dispensed drugs at lag 3-5, corresponding to a 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4, 3.6) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.1, 1.8) per 10 μg/m3 pollutant concentration increase, respectively. Our findings indicated that intermittent increases in levels of particle matter from traffic and natural sources and ambient H2S levels were weakly associated with increased dispensing of drugs for obstructive pulmonary disease in Iceland's capital area. These weak associations could be confounded by unevaluated variables hence further studies are needed.
dc.description.sponsorshipOddur Olafsson Memorial Fund Support and Memorial of the Icelandic Asthma and Allergy Society Icelandic Road Administration University of Icelanden_GB
dc.language.isoenen
dc.relation.urlhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2011.10.010en_GB
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935111002866en_GB
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Environmental researchen_GB
dc.subject.meshAdulten_GB
dc.subject.meshAgeden_GB
dc.subject.meshAged, 80 and overen_GB
dc.subject.meshAir Pollutantsen_GB
dc.subject.meshAir Pollutionen_GB
dc.subject.meshAnti-Asthmatic Agentsen_GB
dc.subject.meshAsthmaen_GB
dc.subject.meshDrug Utilizationen_GB
dc.subject.meshHumansen_GB
dc.subject.meshHydrogen Sulfideen_GB
dc.subject.meshIcelanden_GB
dc.subject.meshInhalation Exposureen_GB
dc.subject.meshLung Diseases, Obstructiveen_GB
dc.subject.meshMiddle Ageden_GB
dc.subject.meshNitrogen Dioxideen_GB
dc.subject.meshOzoneen_GB
dc.subject.meshParticulate Matteren_GB
dc.subject.meshPoisson Distributionen_GB
dc.subject.meshRegistriesen_GB
dc.subject.meshRegression Analysisen_GB
dc.subject.meshRisken_GB
dc.subject.meshSeasonsen_GB
dc.subject.meshUrban Populationen_GB
dc.subject.meshWeatheren_GB
dc.titleHydrogen sulfide and particle matter levels associated with increased dispensing of anti-asthma drugs in Iceland's capital.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentCentre of Public Health Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Stapi v/Hringbraut, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. hkc1@hi.isen_GB
dc.identifier.journalEnvironmental researchen_GB
dc.rights.accessNational Consortium - Landsaðganguren
html.description.abstractAir pollutants in Iceland's capital area include hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions from geothermal power plants, particle pollution (PM10) and traffic-related pollutants. Respiratory health effects of exposure to PM and traffic pollutants are well documented, yet this is one of the first studies to investigate short-term health effects of ambient H2S exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between daily ambient levels of H2S, PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), and the use of drugs for obstructive pulmonary diseases in adults in Iceland's capital area. The study period was 8 March 2006 to 31 December 2009. We used log-linear Poisson generalized additive regression models with cubic splines to estimate relative risks of individually dispensed drugs by air pollution levels. A three-day moving average of the exposure variables gave the best fit to the data. Final models included significant covariates adjusting for climate and influenza epidemics, as well as time-dependent variables. The three-day moving average of H2S and PM10 levels were positively associated with the number of individuals who were dispensed drugs at lag 3-5, corresponding to a 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4, 3.6) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.1, 1.8) per 10 μg/m3 pollutant concentration increase, respectively. Our findings indicated that intermittent increases in levels of particle matter from traffic and natural sources and ambient H2S levels were weakly associated with increased dispensing of drugs for obstructive pulmonary disease in Iceland's capital area. These weak associations could be confounded by unevaluated variables hence further studies are needed.


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