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dc.contributor.authorGudjonsson, Gisli H
dc.contributor.authorSigurdsson, Jon Fridrik
dc.contributor.authorSigfusdottir, Inga Dora
dc.contributor.authorYoung, Susan
dc.date.accessioned2013-08-20T13:27:23Z
dc.date.available2013-08-20T13:27:23Z
dc.date.issued2012-03
dc.date.submitted2013-08-20
dc.identifier.citationJ Child Psychol Psychiatry 2012, 53(3):304-12en_GB
dc.identifier.issn1469-7610
dc.identifier.pmid22066497
dc.identifier.doi10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02489.x
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2336/299253
dc.descriptionTo access publisher full text version of this article. Please click on the hyperlink in Additional Links field.en_GB
dc.description.abstractThis study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in class relating to anxiety, depression and antiestablishment attitudes, ADHD symptoms, smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use. Of the total sample, 5.4% met screening criteria for ADHD. Smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use were significantly related to ADHD symptoms. In addition, the number of different illicit drugs consumed was significantly higher among the ADHD symptomatic than the nonsymptomatic participants, including the illicit use of sedatives. The main distinguishing illicit drug substances were lysergic acid diethylamide (odds ratio or OR = 8.0), cocaine (OR = 7.5), mushrooms (OR = 7.1) and amphetamines (OR = 6.5). Logistic multiple regressions showed that after controlling for gender and school grade, ADHD symptoms predicted smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use independent of anxiety, depression and antiestablishment attitudes. In addition, poly-substance use was linearly and incrementally related to ADHD symptoms with a large effect size. The findings underscore the vulnerability of young persons with ADHD symptoms to smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use, possibly as a means of self-medication, and emphasize a need for early identification and treatment to reduce the risk of escalation.
dc.description.sponsorshipJanssen-Cilag Shire Novatis Eli-Lilly Flynn-Pharmaen_GB
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherWiley-Blackwellen_GB
dc.relation.urlhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02489.xen_GB
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplinesen_GB
dc.subject.meshAdolescenten_GB
dc.subject.meshAlcohol Drinkingen_GB
dc.subject.meshAttention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivityen_GB
dc.subject.meshFemaleen_GB
dc.subject.meshHumansen_GB
dc.subject.meshIcelanden_GB
dc.subject.meshMaleen_GB
dc.subject.meshOdds Ratioen_GB
dc.subject.meshQuestionnairesen_GB
dc.subject.meshRisk Factorsen_GB
dc.subject.meshSmokingen_GB
dc.subject.meshStreet Drugsen_GB
dc.subject.meshSubstance-Related Disordersen_GB
dc.titleAn epidemiological study of ADHD symptoms among young persons and the relationship with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentKing's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.en_GB
dc.identifier.journalJournal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplinesen_GB
dc.rights.accessNational Consortium - Landsaðganguren
html.description.abstractThis study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in class relating to anxiety, depression and antiestablishment attitudes, ADHD symptoms, smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use. Of the total sample, 5.4% met screening criteria for ADHD. Smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use were significantly related to ADHD symptoms. In addition, the number of different illicit drugs consumed was significantly higher among the ADHD symptomatic than the nonsymptomatic participants, including the illicit use of sedatives. The main distinguishing illicit drug substances were lysergic acid diethylamide (odds ratio or OR = 8.0), cocaine (OR = 7.5), mushrooms (OR = 7.1) and amphetamines (OR = 6.5). Logistic multiple regressions showed that after controlling for gender and school grade, ADHD symptoms predicted smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use independent of anxiety, depression and antiestablishment attitudes. In addition, poly-substance use was linearly and incrementally related to ADHD symptoms with a large effect size. The findings underscore the vulnerability of young persons with ADHD symptoms to smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use, possibly as a means of self-medication, and emphasize a need for early identification and treatment to reduce the risk of escalation.


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