Risk factors for COPD spirometrically defined from the lower limit of normal in the BOLD project.
Cast your vote
You can rate an item by clicking the amount of stars they wish to award to this item.
When enough users have cast their vote on this item, the average rating will also be shown.
Your vote was cast
Thank you for your feedback
Thank you for your feedback
Vollmer, William M
McBurnie, Mary Ann
Tan, Wan C
Buist, A Sonia
MetadataShow full item record
CitationEur. Respir. J. 2012, 39(6):1343-53
AbstractChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predicted to become the third most common cause of death and disability worldwide by 2020. The prevalence of COPD defined by the lower limit of normal was estimated using high-quality spirometry in surveys of 14 populations aged ≥ 40 yrs. The strength and consistency of associations were assessed using random effects meta-analysis. Pack-years of smoking were associated with risk of COPD at each site. After adjusting for this effect, we still observed significant associations of COPD risk with age (OR 1.52 for a 10 yr age difference, 95% CI 1.35-1.71), body mass index in obese compared with normal weight (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.37-0.67), level of education completed (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.67-0.87), hospitalisation with a respiratory problem before age 10 yrs (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.42-3.91), passive cigarette smoke exposure (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.47), tuberculosis (OR 1.78, 95%CI 1.17-2.72) and a family history of COPD (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.19-1.90). Although smoking is the most important risk factor for COPD, other risk factors are also important. More research is required to elucidate relevant risk factors in low- and middle-income countries where the greatest impact of COPD will occur.
DescriptionTo access publisher full text version of this article. Please click on the hyperlink in Additional Links field.
RightsArchived with thanks to The European respiratory journal
- Impact of active and passive smoking as risk factors for asthma and COPD in women presenting to primary care in Syria: first report by the WHO-GARD survey group.
- Authors: Mohammad Y, Shaaban R, Al-Zahab BA, Khaltaev N, Bousquet J, Dubaybo B
- Issue date: 2013
- Association of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in childhood with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory symptoms in adults.
- Authors: Johannessen A, Bakke PS, Hardie JA, Eagan TM
- Issue date: 2012 Apr
- International variation in the prevalence of COPD (the BOLD Study): a population-based prevalence study.
- Authors: Buist AS, McBurnie MA, Vollmer WM, Gillespie S, Burney P, Mannino DM, Menezes AM, Sullivan SD, Lee TA, Weiss KB, Jensen RL, Marks GB, Gulsvik A, Nizankowska-Mogilnicka E, BOLD Collaborative Research Group.
- Issue date: 2007 Sep 1
- A multicentric study on epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its relationship with tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure.
- Authors: Jindal SK, Aggarwal AN, Chaudhry K, Chhabra SK, D'Souza GA, Gupta D, Katiyar SK, Kumar R, Shah B, Vijayan VK, Asthma Epidemiology Study Group.
- Issue date: 2006 Jan-Mar
- The prevalence of undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a primary care population with respiratory tract infections - a case finding study.
- Authors: Sandelowsky H, Ställberg B, Nager A, Hasselström J
- Issue date: 2011 Nov 3