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dc.contributor.authorWells, Jonathan C K
dc.contributor.authorJonsdottir, Olof H
dc.contributor.authorHibberd, Patricia L
dc.contributor.authorFewtrell, Mary S
dc.contributor.authorThorsdottir, Inga
dc.contributor.authorEaton, Simon
dc.contributor.authorLucas, Alan
dc.contributor.authorGunnlaugsson, Geir
dc.contributor.authorKleinman, Ronald E
dc.date.accessioned2013-09-23T15:18:54Z
dc.date.available2013-09-23T15:18:54Z
dc.date.issued2012-07
dc.date.submitted2013-09-23
dc.identifier.citationAm. J. Clin. Nutr. 2012, 96(1):73-9en_GB
dc.identifier.issn1938-3207
dc.identifier.pmid22592102
dc.identifier.doi10.3945/ajcn.111.030403
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2336/302125
dc.descriptionTo access publisher's full text version of this article. Please click on the hyperlink in Additional Links field.en_GB
dc.description.abstractThe WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 mo after birth. However, the time at which breast milk ceases to provide adequate energy and nutrition, requiring the introduction of complementary foods, remains unclear. Most studies that investigated this issue were observational and potentially confounded by variability in social circumstances or infant growth. We hypothesized that EBF infants would consume more breast milk at age 6 mo than infants receiving breast milk and complementary foods. We measured anthropometric outcomes, body composition, and breast-milk intake at age 6 mo in infants who were randomly assigned at age 4 mo either to 6-mo EBF or to the introduction of complementary foods with continued breastfeeding. We recruited 119 infants from health centers in Reykjavik and neighboring municipalities in Iceland. In 100 infants who completed the protocol (50/group), breast-milk intake was measured by using stable isotopes, and complementary food intakes were weighed over 3 d in the complementary feeding (CF) group. Breast-milk intake was 83 g/d (95% CI: 19, 148 g/d) greater in EBF (mean ± SD: 901 ± 158 g/d) than in CF (818 ± 166 g/d) infants and was equivalent to 56 kcal/d; CF infants obtained 63 ± 52 kcal/d from complementary foods. Estimated total energy intakes were similar (EBF: 560 ± 98 kcal/d; CF: 571 ± 97 kcal/d). Secondary outcomes (anthropometric outcomes, body composition) did not differ significantly between groups. On a group basis, EBF to age 6 mo did not compromise infant growth or body composition, and energy intake at age 6 mo was comparable to that in CF infants whose energy intake was not constrained by maternal breast-milk output.
dc.description.sponsorshipMead Johnson University of Icelanden_GB
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherAmerican Society of Nutrition -ASNen_GB
dc.relation.urlhttp://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.111.030403en_GB
dc.relation.urlhttp://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/96/1/73.longen_GB
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to The American journal of clinical nutritionen_GB
dc.subject.meshBody Compositionen_GB
dc.subject.meshBody Weights and Measuresen_GB
dc.subject.meshBreast Feedingen_GB
dc.subject.meshChild Developmenten_GB
dc.subject.meshDeuterium Oxideen_GB
dc.subject.meshDieten_GB
dc.subject.meshDiet Recordsen_GB
dc.subject.meshEnergy Intakeen_GB
dc.subject.meshFemaleen_GB
dc.subject.meshHealth Promotionen_GB
dc.subject.meshHumansen_GB
dc.subject.meshIcelanden_GB
dc.subject.meshInfanten_GB
dc.subject.meshInfant Fooden_GB
dc.subject.meshInfant Nutritional Physiological Phenomenaen_GB
dc.subject.meshMaleen_GB
dc.subject.meshMilk, Humanen_GB
dc.subject.meshModels, Biologicalen_GB
dc.subject.meshPatient Dropoutsen_GB
dc.subject.meshWorld Health Organizationen_GB
dc.titleRandomized controlled trial of 4 compared with 6 mo of exclusive breastfeeding in Iceland: differences in breast-milk intake by stable-isotope probe.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentChildhood Nutrition Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom.en_GB
dc.identifier.journalAmerican journal of clinical nutritionen_GB
dc.rights.accessOpen Access - Opinn aðganguren
html.description.abstractThe WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 mo after birth. However, the time at which breast milk ceases to provide adequate energy and nutrition, requiring the introduction of complementary foods, remains unclear. Most studies that investigated this issue were observational and potentially confounded by variability in social circumstances or infant growth. We hypothesized that EBF infants would consume more breast milk at age 6 mo than infants receiving breast milk and complementary foods. We measured anthropometric outcomes, body composition, and breast-milk intake at age 6 mo in infants who were randomly assigned at age 4 mo either to 6-mo EBF or to the introduction of complementary foods with continued breastfeeding. We recruited 119 infants from health centers in Reykjavik and neighboring municipalities in Iceland. In 100 infants who completed the protocol (50/group), breast-milk intake was measured by using stable isotopes, and complementary food intakes were weighed over 3 d in the complementary feeding (CF) group. Breast-milk intake was 83 g/d (95% CI: 19, 148 g/d) greater in EBF (mean ± SD: 901 ± 158 g/d) than in CF (818 ± 166 g/d) infants and was equivalent to 56 kcal/d; CF infants obtained 63 ± 52 kcal/d from complementary foods. Estimated total energy intakes were similar (EBF: 560 ± 98 kcal/d; CF: 571 ± 97 kcal/d). Secondary outcomes (anthropometric outcomes, body composition) did not differ significantly between groups. On a group basis, EBF to age 6 mo did not compromise infant growth or body composition, and energy intake at age 6 mo was comparable to that in CF infants whose energy intake was not constrained by maternal breast-milk output.


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