• European genome-wide association study identifies SLC14A1 as a new urinary bladder cancer susceptibility gene.

      Rafnar, Thorunn; Vermeulen, Sita H; Sulem, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Aben, Katja K; Witjes, J Alfred; Grotenhuis, Anne J; Verhaegh, Gerald W; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A; Besenbacher, Soren; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2011-11-01)
      Three genome-wide association studies in Europe and the USA have reported eight urinary bladder cancer (UBC) susceptibility loci. Using extended case and control series and 1000 Genomes imputations of 5 340 737 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we searched for additional loci in the European GWAS. The discovery sample set consisted of 1631 cases and 3822 controls from the Netherlands and 603 cases and 37 781 controls from Iceland. For follow-up, we used 3790 cases and 7507 controls from 13 sample sets of European and Iranian ancestry. Based on the discovery analysis, we followed up signals in the urea transporter (UT) gene SLC14A. The strongest signal at this locus was represented by a SNP in intron 3, rs17674580, that reached genome-wide significance in the overall analysis of the discovery and follow-up groups: odds ratio = 1.17, P = 7.6 × 10(-11). SLC14A1 codes for UTs that define the Kidd blood group and are crucial for the maintenance of a constant urea concentration gradient in the renal medulla and, through this, the kidney's ability to concentrate urine. It is speculated that rs17674580, or other sequence variants in LD with it, indirectly modifies UBC risk by affecting urine production. If confirmed, this would support the 'urogenous contact hypothesis' that urine production and voiding frequency modify the risk of UBC.
    • Genetic correction of PSA values using sequence variants associated with PSA levels

      Gudmundsson, Julius; Besenbacher, Soren; Sulem, Patrick; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Olafsson, Isleifur; Arinbjarnarson, Sturla; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Isaksson, Helgi J; Kostic, Jelena P; et al. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2010-12-15)
      Measuring serum levels of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most common screening method for prostate cancer. However, PSA levels are affected by a number of factors apart from neoplasia. Notably, around 40% of the variability of PSA levels in the general population is accounted for by inherited factors, suggesting that it may be possible to improve both sensitivity and specificity by adjusting test results for genetic effects. To search for sequence variants that associate with PSA levels, we performed a genome-wide association study and follow-up analysis using PSA information from 15,757 Icelandic and 454 British men not diagnosed with prostate cancer. Overall, we detected a genome-wide significant association between PSA levels and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at six loci: 5p15.33 (rs2736098), 10q11 (rs10993994), 10q26 (rs10788160), 12q24 (rs11067228), 17q12 (rs4430796), and 19q13.33 [rs17632542 (KLK3: I179T)], each with P(combined) <3 × 10(-10). Among 3834 men who underwent a biopsy of the prostate, the 10q26, 12q24, and 19q13.33 alleles that associate with high PSA levels are associated with higher probability of a negative biopsy (odds ratio between 1.15 and 1.27). Assessment of association between the six loci and prostate cancer risk in 5325 cases and 41,417 controls from Iceland, the Netherlands, Spain, Romania, and the United States showed that the SNPs at 10q26 and 12q24 were exclusively associated with PSA levels, whereas the other four loci also were associated with prostate cancer risk. We propose that a personalized PSA cutoff value, based on genotype, should be used when deciding to perform a prostate biopsy.
    • Genome-wide association and replication studies identify four variants associated with prostate cancer susceptibility

      Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Blondal, Thorarinn; Gylfason, Arnaldur; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Magnusdottir, Droplaug N; Orlygsdottir, Gudbjorg; Jakobsdottir, Margret; et al. (Nature Pub. Co., 2009-10-01)
      We report a prostate cancer genome-wide association follow-on study. We discovered four variants associated with susceptibility to prostate cancer in several European populations: rs10934853[A] (OR = 1.12, P = 2.9 x 10(-10)) on 3q21.3; two moderately correlated (r2 = 0.07) variants, rs16902094[G] (OR = 1.21, P = 6.2 x 10(-15)) and rs445114[T] (OR = 1.14, P = 4.7 x 10(-10)), on 8q24.21; and rs8102476[C] (OR = 1.12, P = 1.6 x 10(-11)) on 19q13.2. We also refined a previous association signal on 11q13 with the SNP rs11228565[A] (OR = 1.23, P = 6.7 x 10(-12)). In a multivariate analysis using 22 prostate cancer risk variants typed in the Icelandic population, we estimated that carriers in the top 1.3% of the risk distribution are at a 2.5 times greater risk of developing the disease than members of the general population.
    • No clinical utility of KRAS variant rs61764370 for ovarian or breast cancer.

      Hollestelle, Antoinette; van der Baan, Frederieke H; Berchuck, Andrew; Johnatty, Sharon E; Aben, Katja K; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Alducci, Elisa; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; et al. (Academic Press Inc Elsevier Science, 2016-05)
      Clinical genetic testing is commercially available for rs61764370, an inherited variant residing in a KRAS 3' UTR microRNA binding site, based on suggested associations with increased ovarian and breast cancer risk as well as with survival time. However, prior studies, emphasizing particular subgroups, were relatively small. Therefore, we comprehensively evaluated ovarian and breast cancer risks as well as clinical outcome associated with rs61764370.