• CNVs conferring risk of autism or schizophrenia affect cognition in controls.

      Stefansson, Hreinn; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Steinberg, Stacy; Magnusdottir, Brynja; Morgen, Katrin; Arnarsdottir, Sunna; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Walters, G Bragi; Jonsdottir, Gudrun A; Doyle, Orla M; et al. (NPG, 2014)
      In a small fraction of patients with schizophrenia or autism, alleles of copy-number variants (CNVs) in their genomes are probably the strongest factors contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. These CNVs may provide an entry point for investigations into the mechanisms of brain function and dysfunction alike. They are not fully penetrant and offer an opportunity to study their effects separate from that of manifest disease. Here we show in an Icelandic sample that a few of the CNVs clearly alter fecundity (measured as the number of children by age 45). Furthermore, we use various tests of cognitive function to demonstrate that control subjects carrying the CNVs perform at a level that is between that of schizophrenia patients and population controls. The CNVs do not all affect the same cognitive domains, hence the cognitive deficits that drive or accompany the pathogenesis vary from one CNV to another. Controls carrying the chromosome 15q11.2 deletion between breakpoints 1 and 2 (15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion) have a history of dyslexia and dyscalculia, even after adjusting for IQ in the analysis, and the CNV only confers modest effects on other cognitive traits. The 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion affects brain structure in a pattern consistent with both that observed during first-episode psychosis in schizophrenia and that of structural correlates in dyslexia.
    • Common variant at 16p11.2 conferring risk of psychosis.

      Steinberg, S; de Jong, S; Mattheisen, M; Costas, J; Demontis, D; Jamain, S; Pietiläinen, O P H; Lin, K; Papiol, S; Huttenlocher, J; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2014-01)
      Epidemiological and genetic data support the notion that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share genetic risk factors. In our previous genome-wide association study, meta-analysis and follow-up (totaling as many as 18 206 cases and 42 536 controls), we identified four loci showing genome-wide significant association with schizophrenia. Here we consider a mixed schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (psychosis) phenotype (addition of 7469 bipolar disorder cases, 1535 schizophrenia cases, 333 other psychosis cases, 808 unaffected family members and 46 160 controls). Combined analysis reveals a novel variant at 16p11.2 showing genome-wide significant association (rs4583255[T]; odds ratio=1.08; P=6.6 × 10(-11)). The new variant is located within a 593-kb region that substantially increases risk of psychosis when duplicated. In line with the association of the duplication with reduced body mass index (BMI), rs4583255[T] is also associated with lower BMI (P=0.0039 in the public GIANT consortium data set; P=0.00047 in 22 651 additional Icelanders).
    • A common variant at 8q24.21 is associated with renal cell cancer.

      Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Masson, Gisli; Petursdottir, Vigdis; Hardarson, Sverrir; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Helgadottir, Hafdis Th; Stacey, Simon N; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2013)
      Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents between 80 and 90% of kidney cancers. Previous genome-wide association studies of RCC have identified five variants conferring risk of the disease. Here we report the results from a discovery RCC genome-wide association study and replication analysis, including a total of 2,411 patients and 71,497 controls. One variant, rs35252396[CG] located at 8q24.21, is significantly associated with RCC after combining discovery and replication results (OR=1.27, P(combined)=5.4 × 10(-11)) and has an average risk allele frequency in controls of 46%. rs35252396[CG] does not have any strongly correlated variants in the genome and is located within a region predicted to have regulatory functions in several cell lines, including six originating from the kidney. This is the first RCC variant reported at 8q24.21 and it is largely independent (r(2)≤0.02) of the numerous previously reported cancer risk variants at this locus.
    • Convergent validity of the interRAI-HC for societal costs estimates in comparison with the RUD Lite instrument in community dwelling older adults.

      van Lier, Lisanne I; van der Roest, Henriëtte G; van Hout, Hein P J; van Eenoo, Liza; Declercq, Anja; Garms-Homolová, Vjenka; Onder, Graziano; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Jónsson, Pálmi V; Hertogh, Cees M P M; et al. (BioMed Central, 2016)
      The interRAI-Home Care (interRAI-HC) instrument is commonly used in routine care to assess care and service needs, resource utilisation and health outcomes of community dwelling home care clients. Potentially, the interRAI-HC can also be used to calculate societal costs in economic evaluations. The purpose of this study was to assess the convergent validity of the interRAI-HC instrument in comparison with the RUD Lite instrument for the calculation of societal costs among care-dependent community dwelling older adults.
    • DNA glycosylases involved in base excision repair may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

      Osorio, Ana; Milne, Roger L; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Vaclová, Tereza; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, Rosario; Peterlongo, Paolo; Blanco, Ignacio; de la Hoya, Miguel; Duran, Mercedes; et al. (Public Library Science, 2014-04)
      Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the BER pathway, PARP1 (poly ADP ribose polymerase), and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In the present study, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of 18 genes involved in BER using a tagging SNP approach in a large series of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. 144 SNPs were analyzed in a two stage study involving 23,463 carriers from the CIMBA consortium (the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2). Eleven SNPs showed evidence of association with breast and/or ovarian cancer at p<0.05 in the combined analysis. Four of the five genes for which strongest evidence of association was observed were DNA glycosylases. The strongest evidence was for rs1466785 in the NEIL2 (endonuclease VIII-like 2) gene (HR: 1.09, 95% CI (1.03-1.16), p = 2.7 × 10(-3)) for association with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers, and rs2304277 in the OGG1 (8-guanine DNA glycosylase) gene, with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12 95%CI: 1.03-1.21, p = 4.8 × 10(-3)). DNA glycosylases involved in the first steps of the BER pathway may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and should be more comprehensively studied.
    • European genome-wide association study identifies SLC14A1 as a new urinary bladder cancer susceptibility gene.

      Rafnar, Thorunn; Vermeulen, Sita H; Sulem, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Aben, Katja K; Witjes, J Alfred; Grotenhuis, Anne J; Verhaegh, Gerald W; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A; Besenbacher, Soren; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2011-11-01)
      Three genome-wide association studies in Europe and the USA have reported eight urinary bladder cancer (UBC) susceptibility loci. Using extended case and control series and 1000 Genomes imputations of 5 340 737 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we searched for additional loci in the European GWAS. The discovery sample set consisted of 1631 cases and 3822 controls from the Netherlands and 603 cases and 37 781 controls from Iceland. For follow-up, we used 3790 cases and 7507 controls from 13 sample sets of European and Iranian ancestry. Based on the discovery analysis, we followed up signals in the urea transporter (UT) gene SLC14A. The strongest signal at this locus was represented by a SNP in intron 3, rs17674580, that reached genome-wide significance in the overall analysis of the discovery and follow-up groups: odds ratio = 1.17, P = 7.6 × 10(-11). SLC14A1 codes for UTs that define the Kidd blood group and are crucial for the maintenance of a constant urea concentration gradient in the renal medulla and, through this, the kidney's ability to concentrate urine. It is speculated that rs17674580, or other sequence variants in LD with it, indirectly modifies UBC risk by affecting urine production. If confirmed, this would support the 'urogenous contact hypothesis' that urine production and voiding frequency modify the risk of UBC.
    • Genome-wide significant association between a sequence variant at 15q15.2 and lung cancer risk

      Rafnar, Thorunn; Sulem, Patrick; Besenbacher, Soren; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Zanon, Carlo; Gudmundsson, Julius; Stacey, Simon N; Kostic, Jelena P; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; et al. (2011-02-15)
      Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 3 genomic regions, at 15q24-25.1, 5p15.33, and 6p21.33, which associate with the risk of lung cancer. Large meta-analyses of GWA data have failed to find additional associations of genome-wide significance. In this study, we sought to confirm 7 variants with suggestive association to lung cancer (P < 10(-5)) in a recently published meta-analysis. In a GWA dataset of 1,447 lung cancer cases and 36,256 controls in Iceland, 3 correlated variants on 15q15.2 (rs504417, rs11853991, and rs748404) showed a significant association with lung cancer, whereas rs4254535 on 2p14, rs1530057 on 3p24.1, rs6438347 on 3q13.31, and rs1926203 on 10q23.31 did not. The most significant variant, rs748404, was genotyped in an additional 1,299 lung cancer cases and 4,102 controls from the Netherlands, Spain, and the United States and the results combined with published GWAS data. In this analysis, the T allele of rs748404 reached genome-wide significance (OR = 1.15, P = 1.1 × 10(-9)). Another variant at the same locus, rs12050604, showed association with lung cancer (OR = 1.09, 3.6 × 10(-6)) and remained significant after adjustment for rs748404 and vice versa. rs748404 is located 140 kb centromeric of the TP53BP1 gene that has been implicated in lung cancer risk. Two fully correlated, nonsynonymous coding variants in TP53BP1, rs2602141 (Q1136K) and rs560191 (E353D) showed association with lung cancer in our sample set; however, this association did not remain significant after adjustment for rs748404. Our data show that 1 or more lung cancer risk variants of genome-wide significance and distinct from the coding variants in TP53BP1 are located at 15q15.2.
    • Ion mobility-derived collision cross section as an additional measure for lipid fingerprinting and identification.

      Paglia, Giuseppe; Angel, Peggi; Williams, Jonathan P; Richardson, Keith; Olivos, Hernando J; Thompson, J Will; Menikarachchi, Lochana; Lai, Steven; Walsh, Callee; Moseley, Arthur; et al. (Amer Chemical Soc, 2015-01-20)
      Despite recent advances in analytical and computational chemistry, lipid identification remains a significant challenge in lipidomics. Ion-mobility spectrometry provides an accurate measure of the molecules' rotationally averaged collision cross-section (CCS) in the gas phase and is thus related to ionic shape. Here, we investigate the use of CCS as a highly specific molecular descriptor for identifying lipids in biological samples. Using traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (MS), we measured the CCS values of over 200 lipids within multiple chemical classes. CCS values derived from ion mobility were not affected by instrument settings or chromatographic conditions, and they were highly reproducible on instruments located in independent laboratories (interlaboratory RSD < 3% for 98% of molecules). CCS values were used as additional molecular descriptors to identify brain lipids using a variety of traditional lipidomic approaches. The addition of CCS improved the reproducibility of analysis in a liquid chromatography-MS workflow and maximized the separation of isobaric species and the signal-to-noise ratio in direct-MS analyses (e.g., "shotgun" lipidomics and MS imaging). These results indicate that adding CCS to databases and lipidomics workflows increases the specificity and selectivity of analysis, thus improving the confidence in lipid identification compared to traditional analytical approaches. The CCS/accurate-mass database described here is made publicly available.
    • Mirror extreme BMI phenotypes associated with gene dosage at the chromosome 16p11.2 locus.

      Jacquemont, Sébastien; Reymond, Alexandre; Zufferey, Flore; Harewood, Louise; Walters, Robin G; Kutalik, Zoltán; Martinet, Danielle; Shen, Yiping; Valsesia, Armand; Beckmann, Noam D; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2011-10-06)
      Both obesity and being underweight have been associated with increased mortality. Underweight, defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≤ 18.5 kg per m(2) in adults and ≤ -2 standard deviations from the mean in children, is the main sign of a series of heterogeneous clinical conditions including failure to thrive, feeding and eating disorder and/or anorexia nervosa. In contrast to obesity, few genetic variants underlying these clinical conditions have been reported. We previously showed that hemizygosity of a ∼600-kilobase (kb) region on the short arm of chromosome 16 causes a highly penetrant form of obesity that is often associated with hyperphagia and intellectual disabilities. Here we show that the corresponding reciprocal duplication is associated with being underweight. We identified 138 duplication carriers (including 132 novel cases and 108 unrelated carriers) from individuals clinically referred for developmental or intellectual disabilities (DD/ID) or psychiatric disorders, or recruited from population-based cohorts. These carriers show significantly reduced postnatal weight and BMI. Half of the boys younger than five years are underweight with a probable diagnosis of failure to thrive, whereas adult duplication carriers have an 8.3-fold increased risk of being clinically underweight. We observe a trend towards increased severity in males, as well as a depletion of male carriers among non-medically ascertained cases. These features are associated with an unusually high frequency of selective and restrictive eating behaviours and a significant reduction in head circumference. Each of the observed phenotypes is the converse of one reported in carriers of deletions at this locus. The phenotypes correlate with changes in transcript levels for genes mapping within the duplication but not in flanking regions. The reciprocal impact of these 16p11.2 copy-number variants indicates that severe obesity and being underweight could have mirror aetiologies, possibly through contrasting effects on energy balance.
    • Prevalence and prognosis of unrecognized myocardial infarction determined by cardiac magnetic resonance in older adults.

      Schelbert, Erik B; Cao, Jie J; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Aspelund, Thor; Kellman, Peter; Aletras, Anthony H; Dyke, Christopher K; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Launer, Lenore J; et al. (2012-09-05)
      Unrecognized myocardial infarction (MI) is prognostically important. Electrocardiography (ECG) has limited sensitivity for detecting unrecognized MI (UMI). Determine prevalence and mortality risk for UMI detected by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging or ECG among older individuals. ICELAND MI is a cohort substudy of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (enrollment January 2004-January 2007) using ECG or CMR to detect UMI. From a community-dwelling cohort of older individuals in Iceland, data for 936 participants aged 67 to 93 years were analyzed, including 670 who were randomly selected and 266 with diabetes. Prevalence and mortality of MI through September 1, 2011. Results reported with 95% confidence limits and net reclassification improvement (NRI). Of 936 participants, 91 had recognized MI (RMI) (9.7%; 95% CI, 8% to 12%), and 157 had UMI detected by CMR (17%; 95% CI, 14% to 19%), which was more prevalent than the 46 UMI detected by ECG (5%; 95% CI, 4% to 6%; P < .001). Participants with diabetes (n = 337) had more UMI detected by CMR than by ECG (n = 72; 21%; 95% CI, 17% to 26%, vs n = 15; 4%; 95% CI, 2% to 7%; P < .001). Unrecognized MI by CMR was associated with atherosclerosis risk factors, coronary calcium, coronary revascularization, and peripheral vascular disease. Over a median of 6.4 years, 30 of 91 participants (33%; 95% CI, 23% to 43%) with RMI died, and 44 of 157 participants (28%; 95% CI, 21% to 35%) with UMI died, both higher rates than the 119 of 688 participants (17%; 95% CI, 15% to 20%) with no MI who died. Unrecognized MI by CMR improved risk stratification for mortality over RMI (NRI, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.53). Adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, and RMI, UMI by CMR remained associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.45; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.06, absolute risk increase [ARI], 8%) and significantly improved risk stratification for mortality (NRI, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.31), but UMI by ECG did not (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.73; ARI, -2%; NRI, -0.05; 95% CI, -0.17 to 0.05). Compared with those with RMI, participants with UMI by CMR used cardiac medications such as statins less often (36%; 95% CI, 28% to 43%, or 56/157, vs 73%; 95% CI, 63% to 82%, or 66/91; P < .001). In a community-based cohort of older individuals, the prevalence of UMI by CMR was higher than the prevalence of RMI and was associated with increased mortality risk. In contrast, UMI by ECG prevalence was lower than that of RMI and was not associated with increased mortality risk.
    • Quality of care in European home care programs using the second generation interRAI Home Care Quality Indicators (HCQIs).

      Foebel, Andrea D; van Hout, Hein P; van der Roest, Henriëtte G; Topinkova, Eva; Garms-Homolova, Vjenka; Frijters, Dinnus; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Jónsson, Pálmi V; Hirdes, John P; Bernabei, Roberto; et al. (BioMed Central, 2015)
      Evaluating the quality of care provided to older individuals is a key step to ensure that needs are being met and to target interventions to improve care. To this aim, interRAI's second-generation home care quality indicators (HCQIs) were developed in 2013. This study assesses the quality of home care services in six European countries using these HCQIs as well as the two derived summary scales.
    • Substantial between-country differences in organising community care for older people in Europe-a review.

      Van Eenoo, Liza; Declercq, Anja; Onder, Graziano; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Garms-Homolová, Vjenka; Jónsson, Pálmi V; Dix, Olivia H M; Smit, Johannes H; van Hout, Hein P J; van der Roest, Henriëtte G; et al. (Oxford Univ Press, 2016-04)
      The European population is aging. The main drivers of public spending on health care for people of 65 years and older are hospital admission and admission to long-term care facilities. High quality community care can be a cost-effective and quality solution to respond to the impact of ageing populations on health-care systems. It is unclear how well countries are equipped to provide affordable and quality community care. The aim of this article is to describe and compare community care delivery with care-dependent older people in Europe.