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dc.contributor.authorHörnell, Agneta
dc.contributor.authorLagström, Hanna
dc.contributor.authorLande, Britt
dc.contributor.authorThorsdottir, Inga
dc.date.accessioned2014-07-02T15:15:59Z
dc.date.available2014-07-02T15:15:59Z
dc.date.issued2013
dc.date.submitted2014
dc.identifier.citationFood Nutr Res 2013, 57:en
dc.identifier.issn1654-661X
dc.identifier.pmid23589711
dc.identifier.doi10.3402/fnr.v57i0.20823
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2336/322320
dc.descriptionTo access publisher's full text version of this article, please click on the hyperlink in Additional Links field or click on the hyperlink at the top of the page marked Files. This article is open access.en
dc.description.abstractThe present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short- and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding) and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C). A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diabetes (type 1 and 2), provides beneficial effects on IQ and developmental scores of children as well as a small reductive effect on blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels in adulthood. Other associations explored were limited-suggestive or inconclusive. In conclusion, convincing and probable evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding on several outcomes. The recommendation in NNR2004 about exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued partial breastfeeding thereafter can stand unchanged. The relatively low proportion of infants in the Nordic countries following this recommendation indicates that strategies that protect, support and promote breastfeeding should be enhanced, and should also recognize the benefits for long-term health.
dc.description.sponsorshipNordic Council of Ministersen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherCo-Action publishingen
dc.relation.urlhttp://dx.doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v57i0.20823en
dc.rightsopenAccessen
dc.subjectBrjóstagjöfen
dc.subjectUngbörnen
dc.subjectMataræðien
dc.subjectSykursýkien
dc.subjectOffitaen
dc.subjectSmitsjúkdómaren
dc.subject.meshBreast Feedingen
dc.subject.meshInfant Nutritional Physiological Phenomenaen
dc.subject.meshDiabetes Mellitusen
dc.subject.meshCommunicable Diseasesen
dc.subject.meshOverweighten
dc.subject.meshCeliac Diseaseen
dc.subject.meshBlood Pressureen
dc.titleBreastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentUmea Univ, Dept Food & Nutr, S-90187 Umea, Sweden, Univ Turku, Turku Inst Child & Youth Res, Turku, Finland, Norwegian Directorate Hlth, Div Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway, Univ Iceland, Sch Hlth Sci, Unit Nutr Res, Reykjavik, Iceland, Landspitali Natl Univ Hosp, Reykjavik, Icelanden
dc.identifier.journalFood & nutrition researchen
dc.rights.accessOpen Accessen
refterms.dateFOA2018-09-12T13:27:06Z
html.description.abstractThe present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short- and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding) and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C). A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diabetes (type 1 and 2), provides beneficial effects on IQ and developmental scores of children as well as a small reductive effect on blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels in adulthood. Other associations explored were limited-suggestive or inconclusive. In conclusion, convincing and probable evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding on several outcomes. The recommendation in NNR2004 about exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued partial breastfeeding thereafter can stand unchanged. The relatively low proportion of infants in the Nordic countries following this recommendation indicates that strategies that protect, support and promote breastfeeding should be enhanced, and should also recognize the benefits for long-term health.


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