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dc.contributor.authorJonasson, Fridbert
dc.contributor.authorFisher, Diana E
dc.contributor.authorEiriksdottir, Gudny
dc.contributor.authorSigurdsson, Sigurdur
dc.contributor.authorKlein, Ronald
dc.contributor.authorLauner, Lenore J
dc.contributor.authorHarris, Tamara
dc.contributor.authorGudnason, Vilmundur
dc.contributor.authorCotch, Mary Frances
dc.date.accessioned2014-09-12T15:59:33Z
dc.date.available2014-09-12T15:59:33Z
dc.date.issued2014-09
dc.date.submitted2014
dc.identifier.citationOphthalmology 2014, 121 (9):1766-72en
dc.identifier.issn1549-4713
dc.identifier.pmid24768241
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.03.013
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2336/326078
dc.descriptionTo access publisher's full text version of this article click on the hyperlink at the bottom of the pageen
dc.description.abstractTo investigate the incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and associated risk factors.
dc.description.abstractPopulation-based, prospective, cohort study.
dc.description.abstractWe included 2868 participants from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study with retinal data at baseline and 5-year follow-up.
dc.description.abstractDigital macular photographs were graded for presence of AMD. Participants completed a questionnaire and extensive clinical battery. Biomarkers were assessed. Risk factors for AMD were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs.
dc.description.abstractWe assessed AMD, defined as early or late.
dc.description.abstractAmong 2196 participants free of AMD at baseline, 14.9% developed incident AMD. In multivariate models, incident AMD was significantly associated with age (OR per year, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.11-1.17), current smoking (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.38-3.11), former smoking (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.79), plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (OR, 1.62 per mmol/L; 95% CI, 1.19-2.22), and body mass index (BMI; OR, 1.04 per kg/m(2); 95% CI, 1.01-1.07). Among 563 participants with early AMD at baseline, 22.7% progressed to late AMD (11.0% pure geographic atrophy [GA] and 11.7% exudative AMD). On multivariate analyses, age was significantly associated with progression to GA (OR 1.14; 95% CI, 1.07-1.21) and exudative AMD (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.14). Adjusting for age, female sex was associated with exudative AMD (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.10-3.98) and plasma HDL cholesterol with GA (OR, 2.03 per mmol/L; 95% CI, 1.02-4.05).
dc.description.abstractBy age 85, 57.4% of participants had signs of AMD. Age, smoking, plasma HDL cholesterol, BMI, and female sex are associated with AMD. Elevated HDL cholesterol is associated with GA development.
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherAmerican Academy of Ophthalmologyen
dc.relation.urlhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.03.013en
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Ophthalmologyen
dc.subjectSjónhimnaen
dc.subjectAugnsjúkdómaren
dc.subjectArfgengien
dc.subject.meshMacular Degeneration*/epidemiologyen
dc.subject.meshRisk Factorsen
dc.subject.meshProspective Studiesen
dc.subject.meshGene-Environment Interactionen
dc.subject.meshAge Factorsen
dc.subject.meshAgeden
dc.subject.meshAged, 80 and overen
dc.subject.meshBiological Markersen
dc.subject.meshBody Mass Indexen
dc.subject.meshCholesterol, HDL/blooden
dc.subject.meshDisease Progressionen
dc.subject.meshFemaleen
dc.subject.meshHumansen
dc.subject.meshIceland/epidemiologyen
dc.subject.meshIncidenceen
dc.subject.meshMacular Degeneration*/etiologyen
dc.subject.meshMaleen
dc.subject.meshMultivariate Analysisen
dc.subject.meshSmoking/adverse effectsen
dc.titleFive-year incidence, progression, and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: the age, gene/environment susceptibility study.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Ophthalmology, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland; Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. Electronic address: fridbert@landspitali.is. 2Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Eye Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. 3Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur, Iceland. 4Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin. 5Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography and Biometry, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Aging, Bethesda, Maryland. 6Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur, Iceland.en
dc.identifier.journalOphthalmologyen
dc.rights.accessClosed - Lokaðen
html.description.abstractTo investigate the incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and associated risk factors.
html.description.abstractPopulation-based, prospective, cohort study.
html.description.abstractWe included 2868 participants from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study with retinal data at baseline and 5-year follow-up.
html.description.abstractDigital macular photographs were graded for presence of AMD. Participants completed a questionnaire and extensive clinical battery. Biomarkers were assessed. Risk factors for AMD were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs.
html.description.abstractWe assessed AMD, defined as early or late.
html.description.abstractAmong 2196 participants free of AMD at baseline, 14.9% developed incident AMD. In multivariate models, incident AMD was significantly associated with age (OR per year, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.11-1.17), current smoking (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.38-3.11), former smoking (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.79), plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (OR, 1.62 per mmol/L; 95% CI, 1.19-2.22), and body mass index (BMI; OR, 1.04 per kg/m(2); 95% CI, 1.01-1.07). Among 563 participants with early AMD at baseline, 22.7% progressed to late AMD (11.0% pure geographic atrophy [GA] and 11.7% exudative AMD). On multivariate analyses, age was significantly associated with progression to GA (OR 1.14; 95% CI, 1.07-1.21) and exudative AMD (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.14). Adjusting for age, female sex was associated with exudative AMD (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.10-3.98) and plasma HDL cholesterol with GA (OR, 2.03 per mmol/L; 95% CI, 1.02-4.05).
html.description.abstractBy age 85, 57.4% of participants had signs of AMD. Age, smoking, plasma HDL cholesterol, BMI, and female sex are associated with AMD. Elevated HDL cholesterol is associated with GA development.


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