Insufficient autumn vitamin D intake and low vitamin D status in 7-year-old Icelandic children.
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Kristjansdottir, Asa Gudrun
Magnusson, Kristjan Thor
MetadataShow full item record
CitationPublic Health Nutr. 2015, 18(2):208-17
AbstractThe aim was to investigate autumn vitamin D intake and status in 7-year-old Icelanders, fitting BMI and cardiorespiratory fitness as predictors.
Three-day food records and fasting blood samples were collected evenly from September to November, and cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with an ergometer bike. Food and nutrient intakes were calculated, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) and serum parathyroid hormone were analysed. Suboptimal vitamin D status was defined s-25(OH)D <50 nmol/l, and deficient status as s-25(OH)D <25 nmol/l.
School-based study in Reykjavik, Iceland in 2006.
Of the 7-year-olds studied (n 265), 165 returned valid intake information (62 %), 158 gave blood samples (60 %) and 120 gave both (45 %).
Recommended vitamin D intake (10 μg/d) was reached by 22·4 % of the children and 65·2 % had s-25(OH)D <50 nmol/l. Median s-25(OH)D was higher for children taking vitamin D supplements (49·2 nmol/l v. 43·2 nmol/l, respectively; P < 0·0 0 1). Median s-25(OH)D was lower in November (36·7 nmol/l) than in September (59·9 nmol/l; P < 0·001). The regression model showed that week of autumn accounted for 18·9 % of the variance in s-25(OH)D (P < 0·001), vitamin D intake 5·2 % (P < 0·004) and cardiorespiratory fitness 4·6 % (P < 0·005).
A minority of children followed the vitamin D recommendations and 65 % had suboptimal vitamin D status during the autumn. Week of autumn was more strongly associated with vitamin D status than diet or cardiorespiratory fitness, which associated with vitamin D status to a similar extent. These results demonstrate the importance of sunlight exposure during summer to prevent suboptimal vitamin D status in young schoolchildren during autumn in northern countries. An increased effort is needed for enabling adherence to the vitamin D recommendations and increasing outdoor activities for sunlight exposure.
RightsArchived with thanks to Public health nutrition
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