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dc.contributor.authorDagsdóttir, Heiður Mist
dc.contributor.authorSigurðardóttir, Bryndís
dc.contributor.authorGottfreðsson, Magnús
dc.contributor.authorKristjánsson, Már
dc.contributor.authorLöve, Arthur
dc.contributor.authorBaldvinsdóttir, Guðrún Erna
dc.contributor.authorGuðmundsson, Sigurður
dc.date.accessioned2015-01-19T16:19:57Z
dc.date.available2015-01-19T16:19:57Z
dc.date.issued2014
dc.date.submitted2015
dc.identifier.citationSpringerplus 2014, 3:524en
dc.identifier.issn2193-1801
dc.identifier.pmid25279315
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/2193-1801-3-524
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2336/338560
dc.descriptionTo access publisher's full text version of this article, please click on the hyperlink in Additional Links field or click on the hyperlink at the top of the page marked Files. This article is open access.en
dc.description.abstractHerpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a serious disease with 10-20% mortality and high rate of neuropsychiatric sequelae. This study is a long-term, nationwide study in a single country, Iceland. Clinical data were obtained from patient records and from DNA PCR and antibody assays of CSF. Diagnosis of HSE was classified as definite, possible or rejected based on symptoms, as well as virological, laboratory and brain imaging criteria. A total of 30 definite cases of HSE were identified during the 25 year period 1987-2011 corresponding to incidence of 4.3 cases/106 inhabitants/year. Males were 57% of all patients, median age 50 years (range, 0-85). Fever (97%), cognitive deficits (79%), impaired consciousness (79% with GCS < 13), headache (55%) and seizures (55%) were the most common symptoms. Brain lesions were found in 24 patients (80%) by MRI or CT. All patients received intravenous acyclovir for a mean duration of 20 days. Three patients (10%) died within one year and 21/28 pts (75%) had a Karnofsky performance score of <70% with memory loss (59%), dysphasia (44%), frontal symptoms (44%) and seizures (30%) as the most frequent sequelae. Mean delay from onset of symptoms to treatment was 6 days; this was associated with adverse outcome. In conclusion, the incidence of `HSE is higher than recently reported in a national registry study from Sweden. Despite advances in rapid diagnosis and availability of treatment of HSE, approximately three of every four patients die or are left with serious neurological impairment.
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherSpringerPlusen
dc.relation.urlhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-3-524en
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4174550/en
dc.rightsopenAccessen
dc.subjectHeilahimnubólgaen
dc.subjectVeirusjúkdómaren
dc.subjectÍslanden
dc.subject.meshEncephalitis, Herpes Simplexen
dc.subject.meshSimplexvirusen
dc.subject.meshEncephalitis, Viralen
dc.subject.meshIceland/epidemiologyen
dc.titleHerpes simplex encephalitis in Iceland 1987-2011.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.department1Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Landspítali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. 3Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland ; Department of Infectious Diseases, Landspítali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. 4Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland ; Department of Virology, Landspítali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. 5Department of Virology, Landspítali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.en
dc.identifier.journalSpringerPlusen
dc.rights.accessOpen Accessen
refterms.dateFOA2018-09-12T14:00:41Z
html.description.abstractHerpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a serious disease with 10-20% mortality and high rate of neuropsychiatric sequelae. This study is a long-term, nationwide study in a single country, Iceland. Clinical data were obtained from patient records and from DNA PCR and antibody assays of CSF. Diagnosis of HSE was classified as definite, possible or rejected based on symptoms, as well as virological, laboratory and brain imaging criteria. A total of 30 definite cases of HSE were identified during the 25 year period 1987-2011 corresponding to incidence of 4.3 cases/106 inhabitants/year. Males were 57% of all patients, median age 50 years (range, 0-85). Fever (97%), cognitive deficits (79%), impaired consciousness (79% with GCS < 13), headache (55%) and seizures (55%) were the most common symptoms. Brain lesions were found in 24 patients (80%) by MRI or CT. All patients received intravenous acyclovir for a mean duration of 20 days. Three patients (10%) died within one year and 21/28 pts (75%) had a Karnofsky performance score of <70% with memory loss (59%), dysphasia (44%), frontal symptoms (44%) and seizures (30%) as the most frequent sequelae. Mean delay from onset of symptoms to treatment was 6 days; this was associated with adverse outcome. In conclusion, the incidence of `HSE is higher than recently reported in a national registry study from Sweden. Despite advances in rapid diagnosis and availability of treatment of HSE, approximately three of every four patients die or are left with serious neurological impairment.


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