• Qui Bono? Af brautryðjandastarfi Guðmundar Hannessonar : þróun eftirlits og læknisþjónustu í skólum í Reykjavík 1909 til 1983

      Baldur Johnsen (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 1989-01-15)
      Veturinn 1983 hóf undirritaður, að tilhlutan borgarlæknis vinnu við rannsókn á sögu heilbrigðiseftirlits og læknisþjónustu í skólum í Reykjavik og víðar. Þar ber hæst á fyrstu áratugum þessarar aldar brautryðjendastarf Guðmundar Hannessonar þá héraðslæknis og fyrsta skólalæknis hér á landi. Höfundur hefur í hvívetna leitast við að byggja sem mest á frumgögnum, sem snerta skólaeftirlit í Reykjavik, svo sem fundargerðum skólanefnda, heilbrigðisnefnda og bæjarstjórnar eftir atvikum. Við öflun þessara gagna hefur höfundur notið hjálpar og fyrirgreiðslu Jóns E. Böðvarssonar borgarskjalavarðar, eins og best varð á kosið, og er sú ómetanlega hjálp hér með þökkuð. Þá hafa ákvæði laga og reglugerða, sem snerta heilbrigðismál skóla verið vandlega könnuð.
    • Sóttvarnaráðstafanir á Íslandi eftir afnám einokunarverslunar 1787 : fyrsta heilbrigðisnefndin 1848

      Baldur Johnsen (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 1990-05-15)
      In this paper the constitution and function of the first active public health and quarantine-commission in Iceland is brought from obscurity and discussed in detail. The original handwritten records of the commissions meetings 1848 - 1885 together with the Danish government public health acts and bylaws from 1782 - 1873 are reviewed. The superior magistrate (stiftamtmaður) of Iceland, M. Rosenörn, later home secretary of Denmark, constituted the public health and quarantine-commission and authorized its books of records in the year 1848. It may be mentioned by the way, that the renowned Danish physician dr. Schleisner was, in 1847-48 also, staying in Iceland on a special public health assignment for the government. The commission was before long put to test, as the third cholera pandemic had then already reached Copenhagen, wherefrom there was a direct and frequented searoute to Iceland. Although it may be difficult to gauge preventive measures, it is obvious, that when the main duty of the commission was quarantine, that is to say until 1873, neither cholera, small-pox nor measles gained foothold in Iceland. All these scourges were at that periode, more or less prevalent in the neighbouring countries, and even one of them, small-pox was brought to Reykjavik by French fishing vessels during a great epidemic on the continent 1871-72. The commission succeeded in isolating 14 small¬pox cases at that time by using the then abandoned, out-of-the-way, episcopal seat at Laugames for quarantine-house.The first royal bylaws pertaining to prevention of small-pox and measlqs in Iceland were announced in the year 1787, in the wake of abolishment of the trade monopoly in Iceland, which opened the country to unrestricted communication by merchantmen and fishing vessels. Very comprehensive quarantine bylaws for Norway and Denmark were issued by the Danish king 1805, and gradually made valid for Iceland in the years 1831-38. In 1812 vaccination for small-pox was made compulsory in Iceland. In 1802 a small scale experiment of vaccination was made in some districts in Iceland because the authorities doubted the value of vaccination in a country where the disease was not endemic. After the first cholera-pandemic 1826-34 reached western Europe in 1830, many special bylaws were published by the government in Copenhagen 1831¬51 concerning the possibility of cholera invasion of Iceland. In all the governmental rescripts and bylaws pertaining to quarantine, the greatest emphasis was laid on the constitution of public health and quarantine-commissions, especially in all seaside villages. The authorities did not comply with these whishes of the government until 1848, and then it was high time, as the cholera was on the threshold of Copenhagen.