• Brot úr sögu stungulyfja : með sérstöku tilliti til íslenskra aðstæðna [seinni hluti : stungulyf á Íslandi]

      Jóhannes F. Skaftason; Jakob Kristinsson; Þorkell Jóhannesson (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 2011-03)
      The first reliable syringes and hollow needles for the injections of drugs subcutaneously, intramuscularily and intravenously or for other injections came into use shortly after 1850. As far is known, morphine was the first drug to be injected subcutaneously, using a syringe and a hollow needle. Use of injection medicines, especially containing morphine or other alkaloids, became widespread among European doctors in the latter half of the 19th century. The use of injection medicines began before the existence of infectious microbes or microorganisms in general had become common knowledge, or the equilibria of electrolytes in and around living cells had been understood. Thus, injection medicines, their production and procedures of use had to pass through lengthy development lasting nearly one hundred years, in order to reach the levels of quality standards now universally accepted. It was also a definite advancement when disposable syringes and needles came into general use around 1960. Accessibility to injection medicines and their use was seemingly on a low scale in Iceland until 1930 or thereabout. The production of injection medicines in Iceland began in substance in the fourth decade of the last century. The production was generic, following official formulas, and was based in several pharmacies and a few drug companies. Only two producers offered a sizeable assortment of drugs. The production gradually became concentrated in a few firms and was finally handled by only one international, locally based, generic drugs firm, where the domestic production of injection medicines ended shortly after 2000.
    • Brot úr sögu stungulyfja : með sérstöku tilliti til íslenskra aðstæðna [fyrri hluti]

      Jóhannes F. Skaftason; Jakob Kristinsson; Þorkell Jóhannesson (Læknafélag Íslands, Læknafélag Reykjavíkur, 2011-02)
      Fyrstu lyfjadælur og holnálar, sem nota mátti af öryggi til þess að koma lyfjum í bandvef undir húð, í vöðva, í æð eða eftir atvikum annars staðar, komu fram skömmu eftir 1850. Morfín er fyrsta lyfið sem gefið var undir húð úr lyfjadælu og gegnum holnál. Íslenskir læknar virðast ekki hafa notað stungulyf við lækningar fyrr en um aldamótin 1900 og aðgengi að stungulyfjum og notkun þeirra virðast hafa verið lítil fram undir 1930. Stungulyf voru notuð áður en vitneskja um sýkla eða örverur varð almenn meðal lækna og áður en menn fengu haldbæra vitneskju um jónajafnvægi í frumum. Stungulyf eins og þau sem nú þekkjast eru því árangur áratugalangrar þróunar. Það var og mikil framför þegar farið var að nota einnota lyfjadælur og nálar kringum 1960. Framleiðsla stungulyfja virðist hefjast hér að marki á fjórða tug 20. aldar og var á tímabilinu 1940-1970 á allmargra höndum. Tveir stærstu framleiðendurnir höfðu mikið úrval lyfja en hinir framleiddu einkum vítamínstungulyf (B og C vítamín) og staðdeyfingarlyf (prókaín). Framleiðendum stungulyfja fækkaði smám saman og framleiðslan lagðist af upp úr aldamótunum 2000.