Hreyfimynstur í neðri útlimum við framkvæmd Y-jafnvægisprófs á meðal íslenskra knattspyrnuleikmanna
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AuthorsThelma Dís Ragnarsdóttir
MetadataShow full item record
CitationSjúkraþjálfarinn 2015, 42(1):16-18
AbstractMeiðsli í íþróttum eru algeng og er talið að tíðni þeirra sé um 23,7 á móti 1000 og að flest meiðsli séu í neðri útlimum (Baarveld, Visser, Kollen, & Backx, 2011). Þegar kynin eru borin saman virð ast konur hafa öðruvísi hreyfimynstur og styrk miðað við karlmenn og er t.d. krossbandameiðsli um 4-6 sinnum algengari hjá konum en hjá körlum sem stunda sömu íþróttagrein (Hewett, Myer, Ford, et al., 2005; Mendiguchia, Ford, Quatman, Alentorn-Geli, & Hewett, 2011). Það eru ýmsir þættir sem geta haft áhrif á tíðni meiðsla. Saga um fyrri meiðsli virðist vera helsti þátturinn sem spáir fyrir um meiðsli í neðri útlimum (Mottram & Comerford, 2008). Flestir vilja þó meina að það séu bæði innri og ytri þættir sem spila inn í þegar um meiðsli er að ræða (Bahr & Holme, 2003; Meeuwisse, Emery, Tyreman, & Hagel, 2007; Meeuwisse, 1994). Ójafnvægi á milli hliða sem og stífleiki í ökklalið getur haft áhrif á tíðni meiðsla (Croisier, Ganteaume, Binet, Genty, & Ferret, 2008; Engebretsen, Myklebust, Holme, Engebretsen, & Bahr, 2010; Hewett, Myer, Ford, et al., 2005; Murphy, Connolly, & Beynnon, 2003; Macrum, Bell, Boling, Lewek, & Padua, 2012)
Pre-season screening for evaluating injury risk for athletes has become more and more common. The Y-balance test (YBT), a multi-joint functional test of dynamic postural control, is commonly used to screen for injury risk. The aim of this study was to use this test to screen for weaknesses in the lower extremities in 41 Icelandic elite male and female football players during pre-season as well as record injuries during one outdoor season in 2012. The purpose of this study was also to evaluate if there was a correlation between those who got injured during the outdoor season 2012 and between the results from the YBT and history of former injuries. Players that had sustained more severe injuries (>28 days) before the study did score higher on the YBT compared to the participants who had sustained less severe injuries (<28 days) before the study (p>0.05). Players that got injured during the season scored also higher on the YBT compared to the participants that did not get injured during the season (p>0.05). If looked at location of previous injuries on the dominant and non-dominant leg according to performance on the YBT, there is only significant difference in number of ankle injuries between <94% group (n=24) and >94% group (n=8) on the non-dominant leg (p<0.05). During the season the most common injures were ankle, hip/back and other injuries (30% each) and then knee injuries (10%). There was only significant difference in number of knee injuries on non-dominant leg between >94% group (n=3) compared to <94% group (n=0) (p<0.05). There was only significant difference in joint range of motion (ROM) in the sagittal plane between <94% group compared to >94% group on non-dominant leg in knee (112.3±8.3° vs. 99.7±7.4°), ankle (78.5±5.7° vs. 74.8±4.1°), and hip (126.1±14.7° vs. 107.9±14.4°), as well as on dominant leg in knee (112.2±9.1°vs. dom. 105.5±7.5°), ankle (76.5±5.7°vs. dom. 72.2±4.7°), and hip (131±12.7°vs. dom. 111.2±16.3°). The >94% group had more ROM in the lower extremities than the <94% group (p<0.05). When comparing genders, there was only significant difference in hip and knee kinematics from lateral view. Males were squatting deeper on both dominant and nondominant leg during the YBT compared to females (p<0.05). If comparing males, the >94% group had more ROM in knees, ankles and hips on both dominant and non-dominant leg from lateral view compared to the <94% group (p<0.05). If comparing females, the >94% group had more ROM in knees and hips on both dominant and non-dominant leg from lateral view compared to the <94% group (p<0.05). However there was no difference in ankle ROM between >94% and <94% group among females (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in kinematics from lateral view when females and males were analyzed separately compared to severity of previous injuries, except on the ankle joint on the dominant leg for male participants (<28 days; 70.4±4.5° vs. >28 days; 76.4±5.3°). Both genders had more dynamic knee valgus and hip adduction movement on non-dominant leg compared to dominant leg from anterior view (p>0.05). Females in the more severe injury group (>28 days) also had greater dynamic knee valgus and hip adduction movement on both legs if looked compared to less severe group (<28 days), and also compared to males (p>0.05). However there was more pelvic tilt from posterior view on the dominant leg by both genders compared to the non-dominant leg (p>0.05). Compared to the injury rate before the season and then during the season, it is difficult to say that the YBT can predict for further injuries because >94% group did sustain more injuries compared to the <94% group and the group that had been injured more severe (>28 days) did perform better on the test (p>0.05). Further research is needed to understand the movement kinematics for both legs on the YBT compared to football injuries, for all players as well as separately for female and male players.
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