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dc.contributor.authorLehto, Elviira
dc.contributor.authorRay, Carola
dc.contributor.authorHaukkala, Ari
dc.contributor.authorYngve, Agneta
dc.contributor.authorThorsdottir, Inga
dc.contributor.authorRoos, Eva
dc.date.accessioned2016-04-20T11:54:15Zen
dc.date.available2016-04-20T11:54:15Zen
dc.date.issued2016-01-14en
dc.date.submitted2016en
dc.identifier.citationBr. J. Nutr. 2016, 115 (1):168-75en
dc.identifier.issn1475-2662en
dc.identifier.pmid26450715en
dc.identifier.doi10.1017/S0007114515003992en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2336/606052en
dc.descriptionTo access publisher's full text version of this article click on the hyperlink at the bottom of the pageen
dc.description.abstractWe examined whether there are sex differences in children's fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and in descriptive norms (i.e. perceived FV intake) related to parents and friends. We also studied whether friends' impact is as important as that of parents on children's FV intake. Data from the PRO GREENS project in Finland were obtained from 424 children at the age 11 years at baseline. At baseline, 2009 children filled in a questionnaire about descriptive norms conceptualised as perceived FV intake of their parents and friends. They also filled in a validated FFQ that assessed their FV intake both at baseline and in the follow-up in 2010. The associations were examined with multi-level regression analyses with multi-group comparisons. Girls reported higher perceived FV intake of friends and higher own fruit intake at baseline, compared with boys, and higher vegetable intake both at baseline and in the follow-up. Perceived FV intake of parents and friends was positively associated with both girls' and boys' FV intake in both study years. The impact of perceived fruit intake of the mother was stronger among boys. The change in children's FV intake was affected only by perceived FV intake of father and friends. No large sex differences in descriptive norms were found, but the impact of friends on children's FV intake can generally be considered as important as that of parents. Future interventions could benefit from taking into account friends' impact as role models on children's FV intake.
dc.description.sponsorshipEuropean Commission Juho Vainio Foundation Finnish Cultural Foundationen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherCambridge Univ Pressen
dc.relation.urlhttp://dx.doi.org/ 10.1017/S0007114515003992en
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to The British journal of nutritionen
dc.subjectMataræðien
dc.subjectBörnen
dc.subjectÁvextiren
dc.subjectGrænmetien
dc.subjectForeldraren
dc.subjectÁhrifen
dc.subjectNUR12
dc.subject.meshAttitudeen
dc.subject.meshChilden
dc.subject.meshDieten
dc.subject.meshEatingen
dc.subject.meshEnergy Intakeen
dc.subject.meshFemaleen
dc.subject.meshFinlanden
dc.subject.meshFood Habitsen
dc.subject.meshFood Preferencesen
dc.subject.meshFriendsen
dc.subject.meshFruiten
dc.subject.meshHumansen
dc.subject.meshMaleen
dc.subject.meshParentsen
dc.subject.meshSex Factorsen
dc.subject.meshSocial Environmenten
dc.subject.meshSurveys and Questionnairesen
dc.subject.meshVegetablesen
dc.titleDo descriptive norms related to parents and friends predict fruit and vegetable intake similarly among 11-year-old girls and boys?en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.department[ 1 ] Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Helsinki 00250, Finland [ 2 ] Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki 00014, Finland [ 3 ] Univ Helsinki, Dept Social Res, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland [ 4 ] Univ Orebro, Sch Hosp Culinary Arts & Meal Sci, S-70182 Orebro, Sweden [ 5 ] Landspitali Univ Hosp, Unit Nutr Res, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland   Organization-Enhanced Name(s)      Landspitali National University Hospital [ 6 ] Univ Iceland, Sch Hlth Sci, Fac Food Sci & Nutr, IS-101 Reykjavik, Icelanden
dc.identifier.journalThe British journal of nutritionen
dc.rights.accessClosed - Lokaðen
html.description.abstractWe examined whether there are sex differences in children's fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and in descriptive norms (i.e. perceived FV intake) related to parents and friends. We also studied whether friends' impact is as important as that of parents on children's FV intake. Data from the PRO GREENS project in Finland were obtained from 424 children at the age 11 years at baseline. At baseline, 2009 children filled in a questionnaire about descriptive norms conceptualised as perceived FV intake of their parents and friends. They also filled in a validated FFQ that assessed their FV intake both at baseline and in the follow-up in 2010. The associations were examined with multi-level regression analyses with multi-group comparisons. Girls reported higher perceived FV intake of friends and higher own fruit intake at baseline, compared with boys, and higher vegetable intake both at baseline and in the follow-up. Perceived FV intake of parents and friends was positively associated with both girls' and boys' FV intake in both study years. The impact of perceived fruit intake of the mother was stronger among boys. The change in children's FV intake was affected only by perceived FV intake of father and friends. No large sex differences in descriptive norms were found, but the impact of friends on children's FV intake can generally be considered as important as that of parents. Future interventions could benefit from taking into account friends' impact as role models on children's FV intake.


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