Meal frequency patterns and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery: Results from a large prospective cohort study.
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Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva
Brantsæter, Anne Lise
Meltzer, Helle Margrete
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CitationMeal frequency patterns and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery: Results from a large prospective cohort study. 2017, 12 (3):e0172896 PLoS ONE
AbstractDietary habits are linked to high maternal glucose levels, associated with preterm delivery. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between meal frequency and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery.
This prospective cohort study included 66,000 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Meal frequency and food intake data were obtained from a validated food frequency questionnaire during mid-pregnancy. Principal component factor analysis was used with a data-driven approach, and three meal frequency patterns were identified: "snack meal", "main meal", and "evening meal". Pattern scores were ranked in quartiles. Glycemic index and glycemic load were estimated from table values. Intakes of carbohydrates, added sugar, and fiber were reported in grams per day and divided into quartiles. Gestational age was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Preterm delivery was defined as birth at <37 gestational weeks. A Cox regression model was used to assess associations with preterm delivery.
After adjustments, the "main meal" pattern was associated with a reduced risk of preterm delivery, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 0.98) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99) for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.028. This was mainly attributed to the group of women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, with HRs of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.96) and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.98) for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.010. There was no association between glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, added sugar, fiber, or the remaining meal frequency patterns and preterm delivery.
Regular consumption of main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) was associated with a lower risk of preterm delivery. Diet should be further studied as potential contributing factors for preterm delivery.
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