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dc.contributor.authorSallam, Malik
dc.contributor.authorEsbjörnsson, Joakim
dc.contributor.authorBaldvinsdóttir, Guðrún
dc.contributor.authorIndriðason, Hlynur
dc.contributor.authorBjörnsdóttir, Thora Björg
dc.contributor.authorWidell, Anders
dc.contributor.authorGottfreðsson, Magnús
dc.contributor.authorLöve, Arthur
dc.contributor.authorMedstrand, Patrik
dc.date.accessioned2017-04-10T15:08:09Z
dc.date.available2017-04-10T15:08:09Z
dc.date.issued2017-04
dc.date.submitted2017
dc.identifier.citationMolecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Iceland: Early introductions, transmission dynamics and recent outbreaks among injection drug users. 2017, 49:157-163 Infect. Genet. Evol.en
dc.identifier.issn1567-7257
dc.identifier.pmid28082188
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.meegid.2017.01.004
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2336/620148
dc.descriptionTo access publisher's full text version of this article click on the hyperlink at the bottom of the pageen
dc.description.abstractThe molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Iceland has not been described so far. Detailed analyses of the dynamics of HIV-1 can give insights for prevention of virus spread. The objective of the current study was to characterize the genetic diversity and transmission dynamics of HIV-1 in Iceland. Partial HIV-1 pol (1020bp) sequences were generated from 230 Icelandic samples, representing 77% of all HIV-1 infected individuals reported in the country 1985-2012. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were reconstructed for subtype/CRF assignment and determination of transmission clusters. Timing and demographic growth patterns were determined in BEAST. HIV-1 infection in Iceland was dominated by subtype B (63%, n=145) followed by subtype C (10%, n=23), CRF01_AE (10%, n=22), sub-subtype A1 (7%, n=15) and CRF02_AG (7%, n=15). Trend analysis showed an increase in non-B subtypes/CRFs in Iceland over the study period (p=0.003). The highest proportion of phylogenetic clustering was found among injection drug users (IDUs; 89%), followed by heterosexuals (70%) and men who have sex with men (35%). The time to the most recent common ancestor of the oldest subtype B cluster dated back to 1978 (median estimate, 95% highest posterior density interval: 1974-1981) suggesting an early introduction of HIV-1 into Iceland. A previously reported increase in HIV-1 incidence among IDUs 2009-2011 was revealed to be due to two separate outbreaks. Our study showed that a variety of HIV-1 subtypes and CRFs were prevalent in Iceland 1985-2012, with subtype B being the dominant form both in terms of prevalence and domestic spread. The rapid increase of HIV-1 infections among IDUs following a major economic crisis in Iceland raises questions about casual associations between economic factors, drug use and public health.
dc.description.sponsorshipSwedish Research Council, Sweden Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Sweden University of Iceland Research Fund University of Jordanen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherElsevier Scienceen
dc.relation.urlhttp://ac.els-cdn.com/S1567134817300047/1-s2.0-S1567134817300047-main.pdf?_tid=6d1dd05e-1dfe-11e7-b246-00000aacb35f&acdnat=1491836604_945677becf1f0966951eb133fb9d3531en
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseasesen
dc.subjectAlnæmien
dc.subjectFaraldsfræðien
dc.subjectFíkniefnaneytenduren
dc.subjectTMD12en
dc.subjectVIR12en
dc.subject.meshHIVen
dc.subject.meshMolecular Epidemiologyen
dc.subject.meshDrug Usersen
dc.subject.meshIcelanden
dc.titleMolecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Iceland: Early introductions, transmission dynamics and recent outbreaks among injection drug users.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.department[ 1 ] Lund Univ, Dept Translat Med, Malmo, Sweden Show the Organization-Enhanced name(s) [ 2 ] Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England Show the Organization-Enhanced name(s) [ 3 ] Karolinska Inst, Microbiol Tumor & Cell Biol, Stockholm, Sweden Show the Organization-Enhanced name(s) [ 4 ] Landspitali Univ Hosp, Dept Virol, Reykjavik, Iceland Show the Organization-Enhanced name(s) [ 5 ] Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Sch Hlth Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland Show the Organization-Enhanced name(s) [ 6 ] Landspitali Univ Hosp, Dept Infect Dis, Reykjavik, Icelanden
dc.identifier.journalInfection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseasesen
dc.rights.accessNational Consortium - Landsaðganguren
html.description.abstractThe molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Iceland has not been described so far. Detailed analyses of the dynamics of HIV-1 can give insights for prevention of virus spread. The objective of the current study was to characterize the genetic diversity and transmission dynamics of HIV-1 in Iceland. Partial HIV-1 pol (1020bp) sequences were generated from 230 Icelandic samples, representing 77% of all HIV-1 infected individuals reported in the country 1985-2012. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were reconstructed for subtype/CRF assignment and determination of transmission clusters. Timing and demographic growth patterns were determined in BEAST. HIV-1 infection in Iceland was dominated by subtype B (63%, n=145) followed by subtype C (10%, n=23), CRF01_AE (10%, n=22), sub-subtype A1 (7%, n=15) and CRF02_AG (7%, n=15). Trend analysis showed an increase in non-B subtypes/CRFs in Iceland over the study period (p=0.003). The highest proportion of phylogenetic clustering was found among injection drug users (IDUs; 89%), followed by heterosexuals (70%) and men who have sex with men (35%). The time to the most recent common ancestor of the oldest subtype B cluster dated back to 1978 (median estimate, 95% highest posterior density interval: 1974-1981) suggesting an early introduction of HIV-1 into Iceland. A previously reported increase in HIV-1 incidence among IDUs 2009-2011 was revealed to be due to two separate outbreaks. Our study showed that a variety of HIV-1 subtypes and CRFs were prevalent in Iceland 1985-2012, with subtype B being the dominant form both in terms of prevalence and domestic spread. The rapid increase of HIV-1 infections among IDUs following a major economic crisis in Iceland raises questions about casual associations between economic factors, drug use and public health.


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