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dc.contributor.authorZhu, Yeyi
dc.contributor.authorOlsen, Sjurdur F
dc.contributor.authorMendola, Pauline
dc.contributor.authorHalldorsson, Thorhallur I
dc.contributor.authorYeung, Edwina H
dc.contributor.authorGranström, Charlotta
dc.contributor.authorBjerregaard, Anne A
dc.contributor.authorWu, Jing
dc.contributor.authorRawal, Shristi
dc.contributor.authorChavarro, Jorge E
dc.contributor.authorHu, Frank B
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Cuilin
dc.date.accessioned2017-08-25T14:55:12Z
dc.date.available2017-08-25T14:55:12Z
dc.date.issued2017-07
dc.date.submitted2017
dc.identifier.citationMaternal dietary intakes of refined grains during pregnancy and growth through the first 7 y of life among children born to women with gestational diabetes. 2017, 106 (1):96-104 Am. J. Clin. Nutr.en
dc.identifier.issn1938-3207
dc.identifier.pmid28592607
dc.identifier.doi10.3945/ajcn.116.136291
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2336/620281
dc.descriptionTo access publisher's full text version of this article click on the hyperlink belowen
dc.description.abstractBackground: Refined grains, a major source of dietary carbohydrates, have been related to impaired glucose homeostasis and obesity. Emerging animal data suggest that in utero exposure to dietary refined carbohydrates may predispose offspring to an obese phenotype, indicating a potential role for nutritional programming in the early origins of obesity, but intergenerational human data are lacking.Objective: We prospectively investigated refined-grain intake during pregnancy in association with offspring growth through age 7 y among high-risk children born to women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).Design: The analysis included 918 mother-singleton child dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Offspring body mass index z scores (BMIZs) were calculated by using weight and length or height measured at birth, 5 and 12 mo, and 7 y. Overweight or obesity was defined by WHO cutoffs. Linear and Poisson regressions were used, with adjustment for maternal demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors.Results: Refined-grain intake during pregnancy was positively associated with offspring BMIZ (adjusted β per serving increase per day: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15) and risk of overweight or obesity at age 7 y [adjusted RR (aRR) comparing the highest with the lowest quartile: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.98; P-trend = 0.032]. The association appeared to be more pronounced among children who were breastfed <6 mo. The substitution of 1 serving refined grains/d with an equal serving of whole grains during pregnancy was related to a 10% reduced risk of offspring overweight or obesity at 7 y of age (aRR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.98). No associations were observed between refined-grain intake and infant growth.Conclusions: Higher maternal refined-grain intake during pregnancy was significantly related to a greater BMIZ and a higher risk of overweight or obesity at age 7 y among children born after pregnancies complicated by GDM. The findings highlight pregnancy as a potential window of susceptibility associated with offspring growth and obesity risk among this high-risk population. Data with longer follow-up are warranted.
dc.description.sponsorshipIntramural Research Program of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH Danish Research Councilen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherAmerican Society of Nutrition -ASNen
dc.relation.urlhttp://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/106/1/96.full.pdf+htmlen
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to The American journal of clinical nutritionen
dc.subjectSykursýkien
dc.subjectMeðgangaen
dc.subjectKolvetnien
dc.subjectOffitaen
dc.subjectBörnen
dc.subjectNUR12en
dc.subject.meshAdulten
dc.subject.meshBody Mass Indexen
dc.subject.meshBreast Feedingen
dc.subject.meshChilden
dc.subject.meshDenmarken
dc.subject.meshDiabetes, Gestationalen
dc.subject.meshDieten
dc.subject.meshDietary Carbohydratesen
dc.subject.meshEdible Grainen
dc.subject.meshFeeding Behavioren
dc.subject.meshFemaleen
dc.subject.meshFood Handlingen
dc.subject.meshHumansen
dc.subject.meshInfanten
dc.subject.meshInfant, Newbornen
dc.subject.meshMaleen
dc.subject.meshPediatric Obesityen
dc.subject.meshPregnancyen
dc.subject.meshPrenatal Exposure Delayed Effectsen
dc.subject.meshPrenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomenaen
dc.subject.meshProspective Studiesen
dc.subject.meshWhole Grainsen
dc.titleMaternal dietary intakes of refined grains during pregnancy and growth through the first 7 y of life among children born to women with gestational diabetes.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.department[ 1 ] Eunice Kennedy Shriver Natl Inst Child Hlth & Hum, Epidemiol Branch, Div Intramural Populat Hlth Res, Bethesda, MD USA Show the Organization-Enhanced name(s) [ 2 ] Kaiser Permanente Northern Calif, Div Res, Oakland, CA USA [ 3 ] Statens Serum Inst, Ctr Fetal Programming, Copenhagen, Denmark Show the Organization-Enhanced name(s) [ 4 ] Univ Iceland, Fac Food Sci & Nutr, Reykjavik, Iceland Show the Organization-Enhanced name(s) [ 5 ] Landspitali Univ Hosp, Unit Nutr Res, Reykjavik, Iceland [ 6 ] Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA USA [ 7 ] Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA USAen
dc.identifier.journalThe American journal of clinical nutritionen
dc.rights.accessLandspitali Access - LSH-aðganguren
html.description.abstractBackground: Refined grains, a major source of dietary carbohydrates, have been related to impaired glucose homeostasis and obesity. Emerging animal data suggest that in utero exposure to dietary refined carbohydrates may predispose offspring to an obese phenotype, indicating a potential role for nutritional programming in the early origins of obesity, but intergenerational human data are lacking.Objective: We prospectively investigated refined-grain intake during pregnancy in association with offspring growth through age 7 y among high-risk children born to women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).Design: The analysis included 918 mother-singleton child dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Offspring body mass index z scores (BMIZs) were calculated by using weight and length or height measured at birth, 5 and 12 mo, and 7 y. Overweight or obesity was defined by WHO cutoffs. Linear and Poisson regressions were used, with adjustment for maternal demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors.Results: Refined-grain intake during pregnancy was positively associated with offspring BMIZ (adjusted β per serving increase per day: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15) and risk of overweight or obesity at age 7 y [adjusted RR (aRR) comparing the highest with the lowest quartile: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.98; P-trend = 0.032]. The association appeared to be more pronounced among children who were breastfed <6 mo. The substitution of 1 serving refined grains/d with an equal serving of whole grains during pregnancy was related to a 10% reduced risk of offspring overweight or obesity at 7 y of age (aRR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.98). No associations were observed between refined-grain intake and infant growth.Conclusions: Higher maternal refined-grain intake during pregnancy was significantly related to a greater BMIZ and a higher risk of overweight or obesity at age 7 y among children born after pregnancies complicated by GDM. The findings highlight pregnancy as a potential window of susceptibility associated with offspring growth and obesity risk among this high-risk population. Data with longer follow-up are warranted.


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