Decreasing prevalence of transmitted drug resistance among ART-naive HIV-1-infected patients in Iceland, 1996-2012.
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Şahin, Gülşen Özkaya
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CitationDecreasing prevalence of transmitted drug resistance among ART-naive HIV-1-infected patients in Iceland, 1996-2012. 2017, 7 (1):1328964 Infect Ecol Epidemiol
AbstractIntroduction: Resistance to antiretroviral drugs can complicate the management of HIV-1 infection and impair control of its spread. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance among 106 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients diagnosed in Iceland (1996-2012).Methods:HIV-1 polymerase sequences were analysed using the Calibrated Population Resistance tool. Domestic spread of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was investigated through maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches.Results:Among ART-naïve patients, the prevalence of TDR to any of the following classes (NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs) was 8.5% (95% CI: 4.5%- 15.4%): 6.6% to NRTIs, 0.9% to NNRTIs, and 1.9% to PIs. The most frequent NRTI mutation detected was T215C/D (n=7, 5.7%). The only NNRTI mutation detected was K103N (n=1, 0.9%). PI mutations detected were M46I (n=1, 0.9%) and L90M (n=1, 0.9%). Six patients harbouring T215C/D, were linked in a supported phylogenetic cluster. No significant association was found between TDR and demographic or risk groups. Trend analysis showed a decrease in the prevalence of TDR (1996-2012, p=0.003).Conclusions:TDR prevalence in Iceland was at a moderate level and decreased during 1996-2012. Screening for TDR is recommended to limit its local spread and to optimize HIV-1 therapy.Abbreviations: ART: Anti-retroviral therapy; ARV: antiretroviral; ATV/r: atazanavir/ritonavir; AZT: azidothymidine; BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees; CI: confidence interval; CPR: calibrated population resistance; CRF: circulating recombinant form; d4T: stavudine; EFV: efavirenz; FET: Fishers' exact test; FPV/r: fosamprenavir/ritonavir; HET: heterosexual; IDU: injection drug use; IDV/r: indinavir/ritonavir; LPV/r: lopinavir/ritonavir; MSM: men who have sex with men; M-W: Mann-WhitneyUtest; NFV: nelfinavir; NNRTIs: non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; NRTIs: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; NVP: nevirapine; PIs: protease inhibitors;pol: polymerase gene; SDRM: surveillance drug resistance mutation; SQV/r: saquinavir/ritonavir; TDR: transmitted drug resistance.
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