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dc.contributor.authorKunz, Sebastian N
dc.contributor.authorCalkins, Hugh
dc.contributor.authorAdamec, Jiri
dc.contributor.authorKroll, Mark W
dc.date.accessioned2018-09-04T13:33:54Z
dc.date.available2018-09-04T13:33:54Z
dc.date.issued2018-09-01
dc.date.submitted2018-09
dc.identifier.citationCardiac and skeletal muscle effects of electrical weapons. 2018, 14(3): 358-366 Forensic science, medicine, and pathologyen_US
dc.identifier.issn1556-2891
dc.identifier.pmid29956100
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s12024-018-9997-3
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2336/620681
dc.descriptionTo access publisher's full text version of this article click on the hyperlink belowen_US
dc.description.abstractConducted Electrical Weapons (CEWs) are being used as the preferred non-lethal force option for police and special forces worldwide. This new technology challenges an exposed opponent similarly to the way they would be challenged by physical exercise combined with emotional stress. While adrenergic and metabolic effects have been meta-analyzed and reviewed, there has been no systematic review of the effects of CEWs on skeletal and cardiac muscle. A systematic and careful search of the MedLine database was performed to find publications describing pathophysiological cardiac and skeletal muscle effects of CEWs. For skeletal muscle effects, we analyzed all publications providing changes in creatine kinase, myoglobin and potassium. For cardiac effects, we analyzed reported troponin changes and arrhythmias related to short dart-to-heart-distances. Conducted electrical weapons satisfy all relevant electrical safety standards and there are, to date, no proven electrocution incidents caused by CEWs. A potential cardiovascular risk has been recognized by some of the experimental animal data. The effects on the heart appear to be limited to instances when there is a short dart-to-heart-distance. The effect on the skeletal muscle system appears to be negligible. A responsible use of a CEW on a healthy adult, within the guidelines proposed by the manufacturer, does not imply a significant health risk for that healthy adult.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherHumana Pressen_US
dc.relation.urlhttps://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs12024-018-9997-3.pdfen_US
dc.subjectConducted electrical weaponen_US
dc.subjectElectrocutionen_US
dc.subjectForensic medicineen_US
dc.subjectTASERen_US
dc.subjectVentricular fibrillationen_US
dc.subjectRéttarlæknisfræðien_US
dc.subjectRafbyssuren_US
dc.subjectRafvopnen_US
dc.subject.meshForensic Medicineen_US
dc.subject.meshConducted Energy Weapon Injuriesen_US
dc.subject.otheren_US
dc.titleCardiac and skeletal muscle effects of electrical weapons : A review of human and animal studies.en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.contributor.department[ 1 ] Landspitali Univ Hosp, Dept Forens Pathol, V Baronstig 101, Reykjavik, Iceland Show more [ 2 ] Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Show more [ 3 ] Johns Hopkins Med Inst, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA Show more [ 4 ] Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Inst Forens Med, Munich, Germany Show more [ 5 ] Univ Minnesota, Dept Biomed Engn, Minneapolis, MN USA Show more [ 6 ] Calif Polytech Inst, San Luis Obispo, CA USAen_US
dc.identifier.journalForensic science, medicine, and pathologyen_US
dc.rights.accessNational Consortium - Landsaðganguren_US
dc.departmentcodeFOR12
dc.source.journaltitleForensic science, medicine, and pathology


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