Development of a dietary screening questionnaire to predict excessive weight gain in pregnancy.
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Halldorsson, Thorhallur I
Birgisdottir, Bryndis E
Hreidarsdottir, Ingibjörg Th
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CitationDevelopment of a dietary screening questionnaire to predict excessive weight gain in pregnancy. 2019, 15(1):e12639. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12639 Matern Child Nutr
AbstractExcessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is a risk factor for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, including macrosomia. Diet is one of the few modifiable risk factors identified. However, most dietary assessment methods are impractical for use in maternal care. This study evaluated whether a short dietary screening questionnaire could be used as a predictor of excessive GWG in a cohort of Icelandic women. The dietary data were collected in gestational weeks 11-14, using a 40-item food frequency screening questionnaire. The dietary data were transformed into 13 predefined dietary risk factors for an inadequate diet. Stepwise backward elimination was used to identify a reduced set of factors that best predicted excessive GWG. This set of variables was then used to calculate a combined dietary risk score (range 0-5). Information regarding outcomes, GWG (n = 1,326) and birth weight (n = 1,651), was extracted from maternal hospital records. In total, 36% had excessive GWG (Icelandic criteria), and 5% of infants were macrosomic (≥4,500 g). A high dietary risk score (characterized by a nonvaried diet, nonadequate frequency of consumption of fruits/vegetables, dairy, and whole grain intake, and excessive intake of sugar/artificially sweetened beverages and dairy) was associated with a higher risk of excessive GWG. Women with a high (≥4) versus low (≤2) risk score had higher risk of excessive GWG (relative risk = 1.23, 95% confidence interval, CI [1.002, 1.50]) and higher odds of delivering a macrosomic offspring (odds ratio = 2.20, 95% CI [1.14, 4.25]). The results indicate that asking simple questions about women's dietary intake early in pregnancy could identify women who should be prioritized for further dietary counselling and support.
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