Retinal oximetry: Metabolic imaging for diseases of the retina and brain.
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Olafsdottir, Olof Birna
Eliasdottir, Thorunn S
Einarsdottir, Anna Bryndis
Torp, Thomas Lee
Karlsson, Robert Arnar
Van Keer, Karel
Todorova, Margarita G
Hardarson, Sveinn Hakon
MetadataShow full item record
CitationRetinal oximetry: Metabolic imaging for diseases of the retina and brain. 2019, 70:1-22. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2019.04.001 Prog Retin Eye Res
AbstractRetinal oximetry imaging of retinal blood vessels measures oxygen saturation of hemoglobin. The imaging technology is non-invasive and reproducible with remarkably low variability on test-retest studies and in healthy cohorts. Pathophysiological principles and novel biomarkers in several retinal diseases have been discovered, as well as possible applications for systemic and brain disease. In diabetic retinopathy, retinal venous oxygen saturation is elevated and arteriovenous difference progressively reduced in advanced stages of retinopathy compared with healthy persons. This correlates with pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy where hypoxia stimulates VEGF production. Laser treatment and vitrectomy both improve retinal oximetry values, which correlate with clinical outcome. The oximetry biomarker may allow automatic measurement of severity of diabetic retinopathy and predict its response to treatment. Central retinal vein occlusion is characterized by retinal hypoxia, which is evident in retinal oximetry. The retinal hypoxia seen on oximetry correlates with the extent of peripheral ischemia, visual acuity and thickness of macular edema. This biomarker may help diagnose and measure severity of vein occlusion and degree of retinal ischemia. Glaucomatous retinal atrophy is associated with reduced oxygen consumption resulting in reduced arteriovenous difference and higher retinal venous saturation. The oximetry findings correlate with worse visual field, thinner nerve fiber layer and smaller optic disc rim. This provides an objective biomarker for glaucomatous damage. In retinitis pigmentosa, an association exists between advanced atrophy, worse visual field and higher retinal venous oxygen saturation, lower arteriovenous difference. This biomarker may allow measurement of severity and progression of retinitis pigmentosa and other atrophic retinal diseases. Retinal oximetry offers visible light imaging of systemic and central nervous system vessels. It senses hypoxia in cardiac and pulmonary diseases. Oximetry biomarkers have been discovered in Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis and oxygen levels in the retina correspond well with brain
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- Retinal Oximetry Discovers Novel Biomarkers in Retinal and Brain Diseases.
- Authors: Stefánsson E, Olafsdottir OB, Einarsdottir AB, Eliasdottir TS, Eysteinsson T, Vehmeijer W, Vandewalle E, Bek T, Hardarson SH
- Issue date: 2017 May 1
- Retinal oximetry and systemic arterial oxygen levels.
- Authors: Eliasdottir TS
- Issue date: 2018 Nov
- Retinal oximetry.
- Authors: Hardarson SH
- Issue date: 2013 Mar
- Oximetry in glaucoma: correlation of metabolic change with structural and functional damage.
- Authors: Vandewalle E, Abegão Pinto L, Olafsdottir OB, De Clerck E, Stalmans P, Van Calster J, Zeyen T, Stefánsson E, Stalmans I
- Issue date: 2014 Mar
- Oximetry: recent insights into retinal vasopathies and glaucoma.
- Authors: Boeckaert J, Vandewalle E, Stalmans I
- Issue date: 2012
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Dorzolamide increases retinal oxygen tension after branch retinal vein occlusionNoergaard, Michael Hove; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Scherfig, Erik; Bang, Kurt; Jensen, Peter Koch; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Stefansson, Einar; la Cour, Morten; Department of Ophthalmology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. email@example.com (Association For Research In Vision And Ophthalmology (Arvo), 2008-03-01)PURPOSE: To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs. METHODS: Experimental BRVO was induced by diathermy close to the optic disc. RPO(2) was measured with an oxygen-sensitive electrode 0.5 mm above the BRVO-affected area, which was compared to the retinal areas not affected by BRVO. In one group of five pigs, RPO(2) was measured at baseline, 1 and 3 hours after BRVO, and after intravenous injection of 500 mg dorzolamide. In a second group of five pigs, RPO(2) was measured 1 week after the BRVO, both before and after intravenous injection of 500 mg dorzolamide. RESULTS: The average baseline RPO(2) was 2.64 +/- 0.09 kPa (mean +/- SD). In the BRVO-affected areas, RPO(2) decreased significantly (by 0.67 +/- 0.29 and 0.94 +/- 0.13 kPa) at 1 hour and 3 hours after BRVO induction. In the non-BRVO areas RPO(2) increased significantly (by 0.51 +/- 0.14 kPa) 1 hour after BRVO induction, but subsequently decreased and reached baseline 3 hours after BRVO induction. One week after BRVO induction, RPO(2) was 0.67 +/- 0.29 kPa lower in affected areas when compared with the non-BRVO areas. In the BRVO-affected areas, dorzolamide increased RPO(2) significantly (by 0.36 +/- 0.21 kPa at 3 to 4 hours and by 0.67 +/- 0.40 kPa) 1 week after BRVO induction. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal hypoxia induced by experimental BRVO remained significant 1 week after BRVO. Dorzolamide increased retinal oxygen tension in the BRVO-affected areas both at 4 hours and 1 week after experimental BRVO in pigs.
Retinal oximetry in central retinal artery occlusion.Hardarson, Sveinn H; Elfarsson, Andri; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Stefánsson, Einar; Univ Iceland, Landspitali Univ Hosp, Dept Ophthalmol, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland, Oxymap Ehf, Reykjavik, Iceland, Univ Iceland, Landspitali Univ Hosp, Dept Pathol, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland (Wiley-Blackwell, 2013-03)
Retinal vessel oxygen saturation and vessel diameter in retinitis pigmentosa.Eysteinsson, Thor; Hardarson, Sveinn H; Bragason, David; Stefánsson, Einar; Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, Univ Iceland, Landspitali Univ Hosp, Reykjavik, Iceland (Wiley-Blackwell, 2014-08)To assess retinal vessel oxygen saturation and retinal vessel diameter in retinitis pigmentosa.