Exploratory assessment of pineal gland volume, composition, and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels on prostate cancer risk.
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AuthorsBazzi, Latifa A
Sigurdardottir, Lara G
Czeisler, Charles A
Lockley, Steven W
Mucci, Lorelei A
Markt, Sarah C
MetadataShow full item record
CitationBazzi LA, Sigurdardottir LG, Sigurdsson S, Valdimarsdottir U, Torfadottir J, Aspelund T, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW, Jonsson E, Launer L, Harris T, Gudnason V, Mucci LA, Markt SC. Exploratory assessment of pineal gland volume, composition, and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels on prostate cancer risk. Prostate. 2021 Jun;81(8):487-496. doi: 10.1002/pros.24130.
AbstractIntroduction: Melatonin levels are partially driven by the parenchyma volume of the pineal gland. Low urinary levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin have been associated with increased risk of advanced prostate cancer, but the relationship between pineal gland volume and composition and prostate cancer risk has not been examined. Materials and methods: We utilized data from 864 men from the AGES-Reykjavik Study with complete pineal gland volumes and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin measurements. Pineal parenchyma, calcification, and cyst volumes were calculated from brain magnetic resonance imaging. Levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin were assayed from prediagnostic urine samples. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients between parenchyma volume and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) comparing prostate cancer risk across parenchyma volume tertiles and across categories factoring in parenchyma volume, gland composition, and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin level. Results: Parenchyma volume was moderately correlated with urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin level (r = .24; p < .01). There was no statistically significant association between parenchyma volume tertile and prostate cancer risk. Men with high parenchyma volume, pineal cysts and calcifications, and low urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels had almost twice the risk of total prostate cancer as men with low parenchyma volume, no pineal calcifications or cysts, and low urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels (HR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.02, 3.84; p: .04). Conclusions: Although parenchyma volume is not associated with prostate cancer risk, pineal gland composition and other circadian dynamics may influence risk for prostate cancer. Additional studies are needed to examine the interplay of pineal gland volume, composition, and melatonin levels on prostate cancer risk. Keywords: circadian rhythm; melatonin; pineal gland; prostate cancer.
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