Long-Term Follow-Up of Newborns with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and Low TRECs.
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AuthorsFramme, Jenny Lingman
van Schouwenburg, Pauline A
Lemarquis, Andri L
Zetterström, Rolf H
van der Burg, Mirjam
MetadataShow full item record
CitationFramme JL, Lundqvist C, Lundell AC, et al. Long-Term Follow-Up of Newborns with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and Low TRECs [published online ahead of print, 2022 Jan 26]. J Clin Immunol. 2022;10.1007/s10875-021-01201-5. doi:10.1007/s10875-021-01201-5
AbstractBackground: Population-based neonatal screening using T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) identifies infants with profound T lymphopenia, as seen in cases of severe combined immunodeficiency, and in a subgroup of infants with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Purpose: To investigate the long-term prognostic value of low levels of TRECs in newborns with 22q11DS. Methods: Subjects with 22q11DS and low TRECs at birth (22q11Low, N=10), matched subjects with 22q11DS and normal TRECs (22q11Normal, N=10), and matched healthy controls (HC, N=10) were identified. At follow-up (median age 16 years), clinical and immunological characterizations, covering lymphocyte subsets, immunoglobulins, TRECs, T-cell receptor repertoires, and relative telomere length (RTL) measurements were performed. Results: At follow-up, the 22q11Low group had lower numbers of naïve T-helper cells, naïve T-regulatory cells, naïve cytotoxic T cells, and persistently lower TRECs compared to healthy controls. Receptor repertoires showed skewed V-gene usage for naïve T-helper cells, whereas for naïve cytotoxic T cells, shorter RTL and a trend towards higher clonality were found. Multivariate discriminant analysis revealed a clear distinction between the three groups and a skewing towards Th17 differentiation of T-helper cells, particularly in the 22q11Low individuals. Perturbations of B-cell subsets were found in both the 22q11Low and 22q11Normal group compared to the HC group, with larger proportions of naïve B cells and lower levels of memory B cells, including switched memory B cells. Conclusions: This long-term follow-up study shows that 22q11Low individuals have persistent immunologic aberrations and increased risk for immune dysregulation, indicating the necessity of lifelong monitoring. Clinical implications: This study elucidates the natural history of childhood immune function in newborns with 22q11DS and low TRECs, which may facilitate the development of programs for long-term monitoring and therapeutic choices. Keywords: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome; DiGeorge syndrome; T lymphopenia; TREC; long-term outcome; newborn screening; severe combined immunodeficiency.
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