Adherence to food-based dietary guidelines and evaluation of nutrient intake in 7-year-old children
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CitationPublic Health Nutr. 2009, 12(11):1999-2008
AbstractOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diet of 7-year-old children by comparison with food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) and reference values for nutrient intake. DESIGN: Food and nutrient intake was assessed by 3 d weighed dietary records of 7-year-olds in six randomly chosen schools in Reykjavik, Iceland. Height and weight were measured. The diet of 165 children (62 % of sample) was evaluated by the Icelandic FBDG and the Nordic reference values (NRV) for nutrient intake. SETTING: Six randomly chosen schools in Reykjavik, Iceland. RESULTS: The FBDG on fruits and vegetables was reached by less than 20 % of the children. A total of 52 % reached the FBDG to eat fish twice a week and 41 % to use vitamin D supplement. The FBDG on dairy was reached by 66 % of the children. Mean intake of SFA gave 13.9 % of the total energy intake (E%), which is higher than the NRV, 9.3E% of MUFA and 3.8E% of PUFA, both lower than the NRV (for all differences P < 0.001). Added sugar gave 12.1E%, which exceeds the upper level (P < 0.001). Fibre intake was 2.1 g/MJ and lower than the NRV (P < 0.001). Mean intake of micronutrients was above the recommended intake (RI), except for iodine, 109.0 mug/d, and vitamin D, 6.1 mug/d, which was lower than the RI (P = 0.006 and P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Fruit, vegetable, fish and dairy, as well as vitamin D supplement, need to be increased in the diet of 7-year-old children to reach the FBDG and the reference values for nutrient intake. Dietary changes to increase the quality of fat and carbohydrate are needed as well.
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