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Hirsla is an open access repository, designed as a place to store, index, preserve and redistribute in digital format scholarly work of Landspitali employees. (A/H1N1)
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Detailed Multiplex Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Specific Antibodies in COVID-19 Disease.A detailed understanding of the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 is of high importance, especially with the emergence of novel vaccines. A multiplex-based assay, analyzing IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against the receptor binding domain (RBD), spike 1 (S1), and nucleocapsid proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus was set up. The multiplex-based analysis was calibrated against the Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay on a Roche Cobas® instrument, using positive and negative samples. The calibration of the multiplex based assay yielded a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 97.7%. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody levels were analyzed by multiplex in 251 samples from 221 patients. A significant increase in all antibody types (IgM, IgG, and IgA) against RBD was observed between the first and the third weeks of disease. Additionally, the S1 IgG antibody response increased significantly between weeks 1, 2, and 3 of disease. Class switching appeared to occur earlier for IgA than for IgG. Patients requiring hospital admission and intensive care had higher levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA levels than outpatients. These findings describe the initial antibody response during the first weeks of disease and demonstrate the importance of analyzing different antibody isotypes against multiple antigens and include IgA when examining the immunological response to COVID-19.
Deciphering osteoarthritis genetics across 826,690 individuals from 9 populations.Osteoarthritis affects over 300 million people worldwide. Here, we conduct a genome-wide association study meta-analysis across 826,690 individuals (177,517 with osteoarthritis) and identify 100 independently associated risk variants across 11 osteoarthritis phenotypes, 52 of which have not been associated with the disease before. We report thumb and spine osteoarthritis risk variants and identify differences in genetic effects between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing joints. We identify sex-specific and early age-at-onset osteoarthritis risk loci. We integrate functional genomics data from primary patient tissues (including articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and osteophytic cartilage) and identify high-confidence effector genes. We provide evidence for genetic correlation with phenotypes related to pain, the main disease symptom, and identify likely causal genes linked to neuronal processes. Our results provide insights into key molecular players in disease processes and highlight attractive drug targets to accelerate translation.
Clinical management of patients with drug‐induced liver injury (DILI)Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) should be considered in all patients with recent elevation of liver tests without obvious etiology and normal hepatobiliary imaging. There is currently no biomarker that is helpful in diagnosis which relies on clinical and laboratory findings. Diagnosis is dependent on temporal relationship with a recently started drug or herbal and dietary supplement and elevated liver tests with exclusion of competing etiologies. The implicated agent should be discontinued and the patient should be observed closely. This is particularly important in patients with jaundice who have approximately 10% risk of liver related mortality and/or need for liver transplantation. There is no specific therapy for DILI which is only symptomatic such as for itching. Patients with jaundice and coagulopathy usually require hospitalization.
Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Trajectory of Emerging Echovirus 30, Europe.In 2018, an upsurge in echovirus 30 (E30) infections was reported in Europe. We conducted a large-scale epidemiologic and evolutionary study of 1,329 E30 strains collected in 22 countries in Europe during 2016-2018. Most E30 cases affected persons 0-4 years of age (29%) and 25-34 years of age (27%). Sequences were divided into 6 genetic clades (G1-G6). Most (53%) sequences belonged to G1, followed by G6 (23%), G2 (17%), G4 (4%), G3 (0.3%), and G5 (0.2%). Each clade encompassed unique individual recombinant forms; G1 and G4 displayed >2 unique recombinant forms. Rapid turnover of new clades and recombinant forms occurred over time. Clades G1 and G6 dominated in 2018, suggesting the E30 upsurge was caused by emergence of 2 distinct clades circulating in Europe. Investigation into the mechanisms behind the rapid turnover of E30 is crucial for clarifying the epidemiology and evolution of these enterovirus infections.
The Future of Sleep Measurements: A Review and Perspective.This article provides an overview of the current use, limitations, and future directions of the variety of subjective and objective sleep assessments available. This article argues for various ways and sources of collecting, combining, and using data to enlighten clinical practice and the sleep research of the future. It highlights the prospects of digital management platforms to store and present the data, and the importance of codesign when developing such platforms and other new instruments. It also discusses the abundance of opportunities that data science and machine learning open for the analysis of data. Keywords: Codesign; Data management platform; Data science; Machine learning; Objective data; Sleep diary; Sleep measurement; Subjective data.