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The significance of bicuspid aortic valve after surgery for acute type A aortic dissection.Objective: Decision-making concerning the extent of the repair of acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) includes functional and anatomical assessment of the aortic valve. We hypothesized that bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) does not impact outcome after surgery for ATAAD. We therefore evaluated the outcome after ATAAD surgery in relation to the presence of BAV, acute aortic regurgitation (AR), and surgical approach, using the Nordic Consortium for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection database. Methods: Eight participating Nordic centers collected data from 1122 patients undergoing ATAAD surgery during the years 2005 to 2014. Early complications, reoperations and survival were compared between patients with BAV and tricuspid aortic valves (TAV) before and after propensity score matching for sex, age, AR, organ malperfusion, hemodynamic instability, and site of the tear. Mean follow-up (range) for patients with TAV and BAV was 3.1 years (0-10.4 years) and 3.2 years (0-9.0 years), respectively. Results: Altogether, 65 (5.8%) of the patients had BAV. Root replacement was more frequently performed in the BAV as compared with the TAV group (60% vs 23%, P < .001). Survival, however, did not differ significantly between patients with BAV or TAV, either before (P = .230) or after propensity score-matching (P = .812). Even so, in cohort as a whole, patients presenting with AR had less favorable survival. Conclusions: Early and mid-term survival did not differ significantly between patients with BAV and TAV.
Predictors of Gastrin Elevation Following Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy.Goals: The goal of this study was to elucidate the most important predictors for elevation of gastrin in patients on long-term PPI therapy through analysis of data from 2 published studies in Icelandic patients with erosive GERD. Background: Gastrin elevation is a known but variable consequence of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. Concerns have been raised about the clinical importance of chronic PPI induced gastrin elevation. Study: This cross-sectional analysis included patients with endoscopically verified erosive esophagitis receiving long-term PPI therapy. PPI exposure in dosage over weight (mg/kg) and dosage over body surface area (mg/m) was compared with fasting gastrin levels in two separate multiple linear regression models. Data was collected on age, gender, weight, H. pylori infection, smoking, PPI duration and type. Results: Overall data from 157 patients (78 females) were analyzed. Median serum gastrin levels were higher in females than males (92 vs. 60 pg/mL; P=0.001). Simple linear regression showed a correlation between serum gastrin levels and gender (P=0.0008) as well as PPI exposure in mg/kg (P=0.0001) and mg/m (P=0.0001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that PPI exposure, both in mg/kg (β=0.95 [CI=0.4-1.5]; P=0.001) and mg/m (β=0.02 [CI=0.0-0.0]; P=0.0015) along with female gender (β=0.2 [CI=0.0-0.4]; P=0.02) predicted higher gastrin values. Conclusions: Dosage and female gender seem to play an important role in the development of gastrin elevation on PPI therapy. A significant correlation was found between fasting serum gastrin and dosage of PPIs over weight and body surface area.
Six commonly used empirical body surface area formulas disagreed in young children undergoing corrective heart surgery.Aim: Formulas for empirical body surface area (BSA), which is used to estimate body size and standardise physiological parameters, may disagree in children. We compared six commonly used BSA formulas-Du Bois, Boyd, Costeff, Haycock, Meban and Mosteller-in a surgical cohort. Methods: This retrospective single-centre cohort study comprised 68 children who had corrective heart surgery at Skåne University Children's Hospital, Lund, Sweden, from February 2010 to March 2017. Results: The children (51% female) underwent surgery at a mean weight of 7.0 kilograms (range 2.7-14.1 kg) and a mean age 11 months (range 0-43 months). All the BSA formulas showed good correlation with mean BSA, but there were considerable variations between them. Mosteller's formula was exactly the same as the mean BSA (bias 0.000). The Du Bois and Boyd formulas had the largest mean BSA deviations (bias -0.012 and 0.015). Costeff's formula showed good agreement with mean BSA, Haycock's formula showed minimal overestimation and Meban's formula demonstrated a systemic error in older children. Conclusion: Commonly used BSA formulas did not agree in young children undergoing heart surgery, but they were all close to the overall mean of the six formulas, with the Mosteller formula producing the same value.
Can postoperative dexamethasone nanoparticle eye drops replace mitomycin C in trabeculectomy?Purpose: Compare (a) nonmitomycin C (MMC) trabeculectomy and 1.5% dexamethasone nanoparticle (DexNP) eye drops postoperatively with (b) trabeculectomy with MMC and Maxidex® eye drops postoperatively. Methods: Randomized prospective single masked clinical trial with 20 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma undergoing primary trabeculectomy. The study group consisted of 10 patients without MMC intraoperatively and postoperative DexNP eye drops, and the control group consisted of 10 patients treated with MMC intraoperatively and postoperative Maxidex® . The drops were tapered out over 8 weeks. The main outcome measures were as follows: rates of complete success, that is intraocular pressure (IOP) within target pressures at different time-points without IOP-lowering medication, or reoperation. Secondary outcome measures included the following: relative success rate (with IOP-lowering medications), number of glaucoma medications and reoperations. Patients were followed for 36 months. Results: Both groups showed similar postoperative course and IOP reduction. Intraocular pressures (IOPs) in the DexNP group and in the control group were 25.6 and 24.4 mmHg, respectively, at baseline. Intraocular pressures (IOPs) were reduced to 13.2 and 14.5 mmHg at 12 months, 11.7 and 12.6 mmHg at 24 months and 11.7 and 12.1 mmHg at 36 months, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in absolute (p = 0.36) or relative (p = 1.0) success rates, number of medications (p = 0.71) or reoperations (p = 1.0) between the groups at any time-point. Conclusions: DexNP eye drops are effective postoperative treatment following trabeculectomy. The potent anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect of DexNP may offer an alternative to mitomycin C in glaucoma surgery.
Áhættuþættir og sjálfsumönnun einstaklinga með kransæðasjúkdómTilgangur: góð sjálfsumönnun getur dregið úr lífsstílstengdum áhættuþáttum og hægt á framgangi kransæðasjúkdóms. Tilgangur rann sóknarinnar var að kanna stöðu áhættuþátta meðal einstaklinga með kransæðasjúkdóm, sjálfsumönnun þeirra og trú á eigin getu. Aðferð: Þversniðsrannsókn þar sem þátttakendur voru einstaklingar sem lögðust inn á Landspítala eða Sjúkrahúsið á akureyri vegna kransæðasjúkdóms. gögnum um áhættuþætti, sjúkdómstengda þekkingu og bakgrunn var safnað við útskrift, með spurningalistum, mælingum og úr sjúkraskrá. Sjálfsumönnun var metin með „Self- Care of Coronary heart Disease inventory“ (SC-ChDi) mælitækinu sem metur viðhald heilbrigðis, stjórnun sjálfsumönnunar og trú á eigin getu til sjálfsumönnunar (stig 0–100 fyrir hvern þátt, fleiri stig gefa til kynna betri sjálfsumönnun). Við gagnaúrvinnslu var notuð lýsandi tölfræði og ályktunartölfræði. Niðurstöður: Þátttakendur í rannsókninni voru 445 (80% karlar), meðalaldur var 64,1 ár (sf 9,1). Tæplega helmingur hafði áður legið á sjúkrahúsi vegna kransæðasjúkdóms (45%) og 47% komu brátt á sjúkrahús. Tæplega helmingur þátttakenda var í ofþyngd, 42% með offitu, 20% með sykursýki og 18% reyktu. Einkenni kvíða höfðu 23% og einkenni þunglyndis 18% þátttakenda. Viðhald heilbrigðis mældist að meðaltali 61,6 (sf 15,4), stjórnun sjálfsumönnunar 53,5 (sf 18,5) og trú á eigin getu 52,3 (sf 22,9). Viðhald heilbrigðis mældist betra hjá konum, þeim sem bjuggu með öðrum, þeim sem höfðu áður lagst inn á sjúkrahús vegna kransæðasjúkdóms og þeim sem höfðu betri sjúkdómstengda þekkingu (r2 = 0,149, p < 0,01). Stjórnun sjálfs - umönnunar mældist betri hjá þeim sem höfðu áður lagst inn á sjúkra hús vegna kransæðasjúkdóms (r2 = 0,018, p < 0,01). Trú á eigin getu var meiri hjá þeim sem voru yngri, með minni einkenni þunglyndis og meiri sjúkdómstengda þekkingu (r2 = 0,086, p < 0,01). Ályktanir: Sjálfsumönnun kransæðasjúklinga er ábótavant og staða áhættuþátta alvarleg. Einstaklingshæfður stuðningur og fræðsla eftir útskrift gætu eflt sjálfsumönnun og trú á eigin getu og þannig stuðlað að betri stöðu áhættuþátta.