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Smokers with insomnia symptoms are less likely to stop smoking.Objectives: Smoking is associated with sleep disturbances. The aim of this study was to analyze whether sleep disturbances are predictors of smoking cessation and whether continued smoking is associated with the development of sleep disturbances. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to randomly selected men and women in Northern Europe in 1999-2001 (RHINE II) and was followed up by a questionnaire in 2010-2012 (RHINE III). The study population consisted of 2568 participants who were smokers at baseline and provided data on smoking at follow-up. Insomnia symptoms were defined as having difficulty initiating and/or maintaining sleep and/or early morning awakening ≥3 nights/week. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR). Results: Subjects with difficulty initiating sleep (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval: 0.6; 0.4-0.8), difficulty maintaining sleep (0.7; 0.5-0.9), early morning awakening (0.6; 0.4-0.8), any insomnia symptom (0.6; 0.5-0.8) or excessive daytime sleepiness (0.7; 0.5-0.8) were less likely to achieve long-term smoking cessation after adjustment for age, BMI, pack-years, hypertension, diabetes, chronic bronchitis, rhinitis, asthma, gender and BMI difference. There was no significant association between snoring and smoking cessation. In subjects without sleep disturbance at baseline, continued smoking increased the risk of developing difficulty initiating sleep during the follow-up period compared with those that had quit smoking (adj. OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3). Conclusions: Insomnia symptoms and excessive daytime sleepiness negatively predict smoking cessation. Smoking is a risk factor for the development of difficulty initiating sleep. Treatment for sleep disturbances should be included in smoking-cessation programs. Keywords: Daytime sleepiness; Difficulties inducing sleep; Insomnia; Moking cessation.
Development of classification criteria for hand osteoarthritis: comparative analyses of persons with and without hand osteoarthritis.Objectives: Further knowledge about typical hand osteoarthritis (OA) characteristics is needed for the development of new classification criteria for hand OA. Methods: In a cross-sectional multi-centre international study, a convenience sample of patients from primary and secondary/tertiary care with a physician-based hand OA diagnosis (n = 128) were compared with controls with hand complaints due to inflammatory or non-inflammatory conditions (n = 70). We examined whether self-reported, clinical, radiographic and laboratory findings were associated with hand OA using logistic regression analyses. Discrimination between groups was assessed by calculating the area under receiver operating curves (AUC). Results: Strong associations with hand OA were observed for radiographic osteophytes (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.40 to 1.88) and joint space narrowing (JSN) (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.82) in the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints with excellent discrimination (AUC = 0.82 for both). For osteophytes and JSN, we found acceptable discrimination between groups in the proximal interphalangeal joints (AUC = 0.77 and 0.78, respectively), but poorer discrimination in the first carpometacarpal joints (AUC = 0.67 and 0.63, respectively). Painful DIP joints were associated with hand OA, but were less able to discriminate between groups (AUC = 0.67). Age and family history of OA were positively associated with hand OA, whereas negative associations were found for pain, stiffness and soft tissue swelling in metacarpophalangeal joints, pain and marginal erosions in wrists, longer morning stiffness, inflammatory biomarkers and autoantibodies. Conclusions: Differences in symptoms, clinical findings, radiographic changes and laboratory tests were found in patients with hand OA versus controls. Radiographic OA features, especially in DIP joints, were best suited to discriminate between groups. Keywords: Ankylosing Spondylitis; Anti-TNF; Chondrocalcinosis; Chondrocytes; Epidemiology; Gene Polymorphism; Hand Osteoarthritis; Knee Osteoarthritis; MRI; Osteoarthritis; Outcomes research; Patient perspective; Qualitative research; Rehabilitation; Spondyloarthritis; Ultrasonography.
Prevention of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized older patients with multi-morbidity and polypharmacy: the SENATOR* randomized controlled clinical trial.Background: Multi-morbidity and polypharmacy increase the risk of non-trivial adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in older people during hospitalization. Despite this, there are no established interventions for hospital-acquired ADR prevention. Methods: We undertook a pragmatic, multi-national, parallel arm prospective randomized open-label, blinded endpoint (PROBE) controlled trial enrolling patients at six European medical centres. We randomized 1,537 older medical and surgical patients with multi-morbidity and polypharmacy on admission in a 1:1 ratio to SENATOR software-guided medication optimization plus standard care (intervention, n = 772, mean number of daily medications = 9.34) or standard care alone (control, n = 765, mean number of daily medications = 9.23) using block randomization stratified by site and admission type. Attending clinicians in the intervention arm received SENATOR-generated advice at a single time point with recommendations they could choose to adopt or not. The primary endpoint was occurrence of probable or certain ADRs within 14 days of randomization. Secondary endpoints were primary endpoint derivatives; tertiary endpoints included all-cause mortality, re-hospitalization, composite healthcare utilization and health-related quality of life. Results: For the primary endpoint, there was no difference between the intervention and control groups (24.5 vs. 24.8%; OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.77-1.24; P = 0.88). Similarly, with secondary and tertiary endpoints, there were no significant differences. Among attending clinicians in the intervention group, implementation of SENATOR software-generated medication advice points was poor (~15%). Conclusions: In this trial, uptake of software-generated medication advice to minimize ADRs was poor and did not reduce ADR incidence during index hospitalization. Keywords: STOPP/START criteria; adverse drug reactions; multi-morbidity; older people; polypharmacy; prevention; software.
Associations between intraoperative factors and surgeons' self-assessed operative satisfaction.Background: Little is known concerning what may influence surgeon satisfaction with a surgical procedure and its associations with intraoperative factors. The objective was to explore the relationships between surgeons' self-assessed satisfaction with performed radical prostatectomies and intraoperative factors such as technical difficulties and intraoperative complications as reported by the surgeon subsequent to the operation. Methods: We utilized prospectively collected data from the controlled LAPPRO trial where 4003 patients with prostate cancer underwent open (ORP) or robot-assisted laparoscopic (RALP) radical prostatectomy. Patients were included from fourteen centers in Sweden during 2008-2011. Surgeon satisfaction was assessed by questionnaires at the end of each operation. Intraoperative factors included time for the surgical procedure as well as difficulties and complications in various steps of the operation. To model surgeon satisfaction, a mixed effect logistic regression was used. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The surgeons were satisfied in 2905 (81%) and dissatisfied in 702 (19%) of the surgical procedures. Surgeon satisfaction was not statistically associated with type of surgical technique (ORP vs. RALP) (OR 1.36, CI 0.76; 2.43). Intraoperative factors such as technical difficulties or complications, for example, suturing of the anastomosis was negatively associated with surgeon satisfaction (OR 0.24, CI 0.19; 0.30). Conclusions: Our data indicate that technical difficulties and/or intraoperative complications were associated with a surgeon's level of satisfaction with an operation. Keywords: Intraoperative factors; Prostate cancer; Self-assessment; Surgeon; Surgical performance; Surgical satisfaction.
Preserving Mobility in Older Adults with Physical Frailty and Sarcopenia: Opportunities, Challenges, and Recommendations for Physical Activity Interventions.One of the most widely conserved hallmarks of aging is a decline in functional capabilities. Mobility loss is particularly burdensome due to its association with negative health outcomes, loss of independence and disability, and the heavy impact on quality of life. Recently, a new condition, physical frailty and sarcopenia, has been proposed to define a critical stage in the disabling cascade. Physical frailty and sarcopenia are characterized by weakness, slowness, and reduced muscle mass, yet with preserved ability to move independently. One of the strategies that have shown some benefits in combatting mobility loss and its consequences for older adults is physical activity. Here, we describe the opportunities and challenges for the development of physical activity interventions in people with physical frailty and sarcopenia. The aim of this article is to review age-related physio(patho)logical changes that impact mobility in old age and to provide recommendations and procedures in accordance with the available literature.