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Group B Streptococcal Neonatal and Early Infancy Infections in Iceland, 1976-2015.(Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2019-06)BACKGROUND: Despite a risk-based peripartum chemoprophylaxis approach in Iceland since 1996, Streptococcus agalactiae [group B streptococci (GBS)] remains an important cause of early-onset [<7 days, early-onset disease (EOD)] and late-onset disease (LOD; 7 days to 3 months). METHODS: We studied GBS invasive disease in children <1 year in Iceland in 1976-2015. Bacteria (n = 98) were characterized by susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials, capsular serotyping, resistance genes, surface protein and pilus-locus profiling and multilocus sequence typing. RESULTS: Both EOD and LOD increased during the early years, but while EOD subsequently decreased from 0.7/1000 live births in 1991-1995 to 0.2/1000 in 2011-2015, LOD showed a nonsignificant decrease from its peak value of 0.6/1000 in 2001-2005 to 0.4/1000 in 2006-2015. Serotype III was the most frequently found (n = 48), represented mostly by the hypervirulent lineage CC17/III/rib/PI-1+PI-2b (62%), but also by CC19/III/rib/PI-1+PI-2a (35%) frequently associated with colonization. Serotype Ia (n = 22) was represented by CC23/Ia/eps/PI-2a (68%) and CC7/Ia/bca/PI-1+PI-2b (23%) of possible zoonotic origin. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was increasingly detected in the last years of the study (5 of the 9 cases were isolated after 2013), including representatives of a multiresistant CC17/III/rib/PI-2b sublineage described recently in other countries and expressing resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and streptomycin. CONCLUSIONS: The risk-based chemoprophylaxis adopted in Iceland possibly contributed to the decline of EOD but has had limited effect on LOD. GBS causing neonatal and early infancy invasive infections in Iceland are genetically diverse, and the recent emergence of antimicrobial resistant lineages may reduce the choices for prophylaxis and therapy of these infections.
A worldwide perspective of sepsis epidemiology and survival according to age: Observational data from the ICON audit.(W.B. Saunders, 2019-06)PURPOSE: To investigate age-related differences in outcomes of critically ill patients with sepsis around the world. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of data from the prospective ICON audit, in which all adult (>16 years) patients admitted to participating ICUs between May 8 and 18, 2012, were included, except admissions for routine postoperative observation. For this sub-analysis, the 10,012 patients with completed age data were included. They were divided into five age groups - ≤50, 51-60, 61-70, 71-80, >80 years. Sepsis was defined as infection plus at least one organ failure. RESULTS: A total of 2963 patients had sepsis, with similar proportions across the age groups (≤50 = 25.2%; 51-60 = 30.3%; 61-70 = 32.8%; 71-80 = 30.7%; >80 = 30.9%). Hospital mortality increased with age and in patients >80 years was almost twice that of patients ≤50 years (49.3% vs 25.2%, p < .05). The maximum rate of increase in mortality was about 0.75% per year, occurring between the ages of 71 and 77 years. In multilevel analysis, age > 70 years was independently associated with increased risk of dying. CONCLUSIONS: The odds for death in ICU patients with sepsis increased with age with the maximal rate of increase occurring between the ages of 71 and 77 years.
Effects of an intervention program for reducing severe perineal trauma during the second stage of labor.(Wiley, 2019-06)BACKGROUND: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries lead frequently to short- and long-term consequences for the mother, including perineal pain, genital prolapse, and sexual problems. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the implementation of an intervention program in the second stage of labor involving altered perineal support techniques reduced severe perineal trauma. METHODS: All women reaching the second stage of labor and giving birth vaginally to singleton babies at Landspítali University Hospital (comprising 76% of births in Iceland in 2013) were enrolled in a cohort study. Data were recorded retrospectively for 2008-2010 and prospectively in 2012-2014, for a total of 16 336 births. During 2011, an intervention program was implemented, involving all midwives and obstetricians working in the labor wards. Two professionals assessed and agreed on classification of every perineal tear. RESULTS: The prevalence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries decreased from 5.9% to 3.7% after the implementation (P < 0.001). Third-degree tears decreased by 40%, and fourth-degree tears decreased by 56% (P < 0.001). The prevalence of first-degree tears increased from 25.8% to 33.1%, whereas second-degree tears decreased from 44.7% to 36.6% between the before and after study periods. Severe perineal trauma was linked to birthweight, and this did not change despite the new intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Active intervention to reduce perineal trauma was associated with an overall significant decrease in obstetric anal sphincter injuries. Good perineal visualization, manual perineal support, and controlled delivery of the fetal head were essential components for reducing perineal trauma.
The Robson 10-group classification in Iceland: Obstetric interventions and outcomes.(Wiley, 2019-06)BACKGROUND: Rising cesarean rates call for studies on which subgroups of women contribute to the rising rates, both in countries with high and low rates. This study investigated the cesarean rates and contributing groups in Iceland using the Robson 10-group classification system. METHODS: This study included all births in Iceland from 1997 to 2015, identified from the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (81 839). The Robson distribution, cesarean rate, and contribution of each Robson group were analyzed for each year, and the distribution of other outcomes was calculated for each Robson group. RESULTS: The overall cesarean rate in the population was 16.4%. Robson groups 1 (28.7%) and 3 (38.0%) (spontaneous term births) were the largest groups, and groups 2b (0.4%) and 4b (0.7%) (prelabor cesareans) were small. The cesarean rate in group 5 (prior cesarean) was 55.5%. Group 5 was the largest contributing group to the overall cesarean rate (31.2%), followed by groups 1 (17.1%) and 2a (11.0%). The size of groups 2a (RR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01-1.08]) and 4a (RR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01-1.07]) (induced labors) increased over time, whereas their cesarean rates were stable (group 2a: P = 0.08) or decreased (group 4a: RR 0.95 [95% CI 0.91-0.98]). CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with countries with high cesarean rates, the prelabor cesarean groups (singleton term pregnancies) in Iceland were small, and in women with a previous cesarean, the cesarean rate was low. The size of the labor induction group increased, yet the cesarean rate in this group did not increase.