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Hirsla is an open access repository, designed as a place to store, index, preserve and redistribute in digital format scholarly work of Landspitali employees. (A/H1N1)
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Biobank-driven genomic discovery yields new insight into atrial fibrillation biology.(Nature Pub. Co, 2018-09-01)To identify genetic variation underlying atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia, we performed a genome-wide association study of >1,000,000 people, including 60,620 atrial fibrillation cases and 970,216 controls. We identified 142 independent risk variants at 111 loci and prioritized 151 functional candidate genes likely to be involved in atrial fibrillation. Many of the identified risk variants fall near genes where more deleterious mutations have been reported to cause serious heart defects in humans (GATA4, MYH6, NKX2-5, PITX2, TBX5)
Proton-pump inhibitors among adults: a nationwide drug-utilization study.(Sage Publications, 2018-01-01)The use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) has grown worldwide, and there are concerns about increased unsubstantiated long-term use. The aim of the study was to describe the real-world use of PPIs over the past decade in an entire national population. This was a nationwide population-based drug-utilization study. Patterns of outpatient PPI use among adults in Iceland between 2003 and 2015 were investigated, including annual incidence and prevalence, duration of use, and dose of tablet used (lower We observed 1,372,790 prescription fills over the entire study period, of which 95% were for higher-dose PPIs. Annual incidence remained stable across time (3.3-4.1 per 100 persons per year), while the annual prevalence increased from 8.5 per 100 persons to 15.5 per 100 persons. Prevalence increased with patient age and was higher among women than men. Duration of treatment increased with patients' age (36% of users over 80 years remained on treatment after 1 year compared with 13% of users aged 19-39 years), and was longer among those initiating on a higher dose compared with a lower dose. The proportion of PPI users concurrently using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decreased over the study period, while the proportion concurrently using acetylsalicylic acid, oral anticoagulants, or platelet inhibitors increased. In this nationwide study, a considerable increase in overall outpatient use of PPIs over a 13-year period was observed, particularly among older adults. Patients were increasingly treated for longer durations than recommended by clinical guidelines and mainly with higher doses.
Comparing osteonecrosis clinical phenotype, timing, and risk factors in children and young adults treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.(Wiley, 2018-10-01)Treatment-related osteonecrosis (ON) is a serious complication of treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study included 1,489 patients with ALL, aged 1-45 years, treated according to the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology ALL2008 protocol, using alternate-week dexamethasone during delayed intensification, with prospective registration of symptomatic ON. We aimed at comparing risk factors, timing, and clinical characteristics of ON in children and young adults. ON was diagnosed in 67 patients, yielding a 5-year cumulative incidence of 6.3%, but 28% in female adolescents. Median age at ALL diagnosis was 12.1 years and 14.9 years for females and males, respectively. At ON diagnosis, 59 patients had bone pain (91%) and 30 (46%) had multiple-joint involvement. The median interval between ALL and ON diagnosis was significantly shorter in children aged 1.0-9.9 years (0.7 years [range: 0.2-2.1]) compared with adolescents (1.8 years [range: 0.3-3.7, P < 0.001]) and adults (2.1 years [range: 0.4-5.3, P = 0.001]). Female sex was a risk factor in adolescent patients (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-4.2) but not in children aged 1.1-9.9 years (HR = 2.4, 95% CI: 0.9-6.2, P = 0.08) or adults aged 19-45 years (HR = 1.1, 95% CI: 0.3-4.0). Age above 10 years at ALL diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 3.7, P = 0.026) and multiple joints affected at ON diagnosis (OR = 3.4, P = 0.027) were risk factors for developing severe ON. We provide a detailed phenotype of patients with ALL with symptomatic ON, including description of risk factors and timing of ON across age groups. This awareness is essential in exploring measures to prevent development of ON.
Accidental injuries among older adults: An incidence study.(Elsevier, 2018-01-01)To date, the majority of studies assessing accidental injuries among the elderly have focused on fall injuries, while studies of other mechanisms of injuries have been lacking. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate all injury-related visits among older adults to an emergency department and risk factors for injuries. Data were collected on all registered visits of adults, ≥67 years old, living in the capital of Iceland, to the emergency department of Landspitali, the National University Hospital, in 2011 and 2012. The yearly incidence rate for injuries was 106 per 1000 adults, ≥67 years old. Of all injuries (n = 4,469), falls were the most common mechanism of injury (78 per 1000), followed by being struck or hit (12 per 1000) and being crushed, cut or pierced (8 per 1000). Other mechanisms of injury, such as acute overexertion, foreign body in natural orifice, injuries caused by thermal and chemical effect and other and unspecified mechanism were less common (8 per 1000). Fractures were the most common consequences of injuries (36 per 1000). The most frequent place of injury was in or around homes (77 per 1000), with men being more likely than women to be injured outside of the home (60 per 1000 vs. 36 per 1000). Results indicate that falls are the main cause of accidental injuries, followed by being struck and hit injuries but other causes contributed to the rest. Falls constitute a major public health problem and fall-related injuries can have a substantial impact on the lives of older adults. As life expectancy continues to increase, fall risk is expected to increase. Since falls constitute a major impact on the lives of older adults and can lead to not only declines in physical activity and functional status, but to considerable health care costs, the health care system needs to intervene.